Scotland History, Uncategorized

KING COEL – COEL HEN – THE OLD

COEL HEN, OLD KING COEL, COEL THE OLD

 CARRUTHERS ANCESTOR THROUGH DNA AND GENEALOGY

Coel Hen or Coel the Old, the son of Tegfan, was a Celtic ruler who lived around the turn of the fourth and fifth centuries at the time of the departure of the Roman legions from Britain.

He imposed his power over a large area of the country, Coel’s territory extended over the whole of the north of England from a line joining Chester and Wash and up into what is today southern Scotland. Coel’s association with the north of Britain has led to the suggestion that he may have been the last of the Roman Duces Brittanniarum with his headquarters at York.  Coel Hen or King Coel’s estate was in Ecclefechan, Scotland, what is now a days call the Carruthers farm at Dormont.   ( This is actually why Kit Carruthers of Dormont should be the rightful Chief of the Carruthers Clan in Scotland. )

Geoffrey of Monmouth’s ‘Historia Regum Britanniae’ (History of the Kings of Britain) cites Coel as the King of the Britons following the reign of King Asclepiodotus. According to Geoffrey, Coel, annoyed by Asclepiodotus’s handling of the Diocletianic Persecution, the last and most severe persecution of Christians in the Roman empire, started a rebellion in Caer Colun (most likely Colchester). He clashed with Asclepiodotus in battle and killing him, assumed his title of high-king of Britain.

Kingdom of Cole Hen

According to the Harleian genealogies and the later genealogies are known as the Bonedd Gwyr y Gogledd (The Descent of the Men of the North), Coel Hen was married to Ystradwal, the daughter of Cadfan, and was the ancestor of several lines of kings in the Hen Ogledd or “Old North”, the Brythonic Celtic speaking part of northern England and southern Scotland. His descendants, known as the Coeling, included Urien of Rheged son of Cynfarch Oer, Urien, a late sixth-century warrior king of North Rheged, of whom the Welsh Triads list as one of the “Three Great Battle-leaders of Britain”. Other descendants of Coel include Gwallog, possibly king of Elmet; the brothers Gwrgi and Peredur; and Clydno Eiddin, king of Eidyn or Edinburgh. He was also thought to be the father-in-law of Cunedda, founder of the kingdom of Gwynedd in North Wales, by his daughter Gwawl. The genealogies bestow the epithet Godebog, on Coel meaning the “Protector”.

In the fourth century AD, the predominant race in northern Scotland were the Picts, the name was coined by the Romans who referred to them as ‘Picti’ meaning ‘painted ones’, which referred to the Pictish custom of either tattooing their bodies or covering themselves with warpaint. The Irish referred to them as Cruithni, meaning “the people of the designs”. What they called themselves has gone unrecorded. During Coel’s time the Scotti, Gaelic Celts from Ireland under the leadership of Fergus, king of the Dalriada, began to settle the west coast of Scotland around Argyle.

Coel Hen, fearing if the Picts and Scots united they would represent a dangerous threat to the Celts of Britain, dispatched raiding parties across the northern border to cause discord between the two, they stole the cattle of the Scotti and promptly blamed the Picts for the theft. The plan did not however produce the desired effect, as the Picts and Scots saw through the deception and Coel’s efforts seem to have succeeded in uniting them, leading to an invasion of the British Kingdom of Strathclyde (Ystradclud).

Cole Hen | The Deadliest Blogger: Military History Page

Coel marched north to expel the Picts and Scots from Strathclyde, who fled before his advance to the hills of lowland Scotland. He set up a camp at what was later to become Coylton in Ayrshire.

Before long, the starving Picts and Scots made a desperate attack on Coel’s camp. Coel was taken by complete surprise, and the British forces fled. Wandering through remote territory after the attack, Coel became trapped in a bog at Coilsfield, in Tarbolton, Ayrshire, and drowned. Coel’s death is recorded by Anglo-Saxon chroniclers.

He was first buried in a mound there before his body was translated to the church at Coylton. Following his death, Coel’s Northern Kingdom was divided between two of his sons, Ceneu inherited the kingdoms of north-eastern and midland Britain and Ghorbanian became king of Bryneich, which was later conquered by the Angles, who called it Bernicia. Another son was thought to be Meirchawn whose uncle Mor and cousin Morydd were thought to be father and brother of Merlin. By about 616, the Cole dynasty was eventually wiped out by the Vikings and Saxons.

A later medieval legend tells of a Coel, who was the father of Saint Helena and the grandfather of Roman Emperor Constantine the Great. Other similarly named characters may be confused or with the Welsh Coel. Coel Hen may be the ‘the merry old soul’ for the children’s nursery rhyme “Old King Cole”.

OFFICIAL AND REGISTERED CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS SINCE 1983-CLAN OF OUR ANCESTORS

SCOTTISH CLAN – IRISH CLAN – NORSE CLAN

Preserving Our Past, Recording Our Present, Informing Our Future

Ancient and Honorable Clan Carruthers CCIS

carruthersclan1@gmail.com  clancarruthers1@gmail.com

coacarrutehrs

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS HISTORIAN AND GENEALOGIST

New Blog Banner 05

You can find us on our main facebook pages at :

SILVER WINGS-https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClanLLC/

GOLD WINGS – https://www.facebook.com/carrutherscarrothers.pat.9

CLAN CARRUTHERS FAMILY HISTORY – https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClan

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/3878691252182714

CLAN CARRUTHERS INT SOCIETY- https://www.facebook.com/groups/394653845137709

CLAN CARRUTHERS – BORDER REIVERS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/434959914239094

ANCIENT HISTORY, Scotland History, THE CARRUTHERS NAME, Uncategorized

KING CARATACUS HILLFORT CAER – CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS

KING CARRATACUS HILLFORT – CAER CARADOC

CARRUTHERS DNA ANCESTOR

CARATACUS LAST STAND

The Iron Age hill fort of Caer Caradoc in Shropshire’s hill country has been connected with the battle due to its name which translates as the fortress of Caractacus.  CARADOC CARRATACUS – Legend states that the battle was fought at a Celtic Camp in the Malvern Hills.

CARADOC CARATACUS HILLFORT

Caradoc Hillfort

The River Severn, though visible from the latter location, is much too distant to fit the description of the battle site as it was described by Tacitus, and the Severn is not visible from Caer Caradoc. A position just west of Caersws on the River Severn, in Powys, where the remains of Iron Age earthworks can still be seen has also been suggested as a possible site of the battle as has a location near Chapel Lawn, in Shropshire.

Roman TestudoRoman Testudo

Our information on the Battle of Caer Caradoc, including a description of the terrain, are derived from the Roman historian Tacitus, The Annals of Tacitus record the history of the Roman Empire from the death of Augustus in AD 14 until at least the last two years of Nero’s reign.

With Roman troops moving in against him, Caratacus chose a position on the high ground in hilly terrain. The Celtic forces were probably mostly composed of warriors from the Ordovices tribe though there may also have been some Silures as well. This well-chosen position made both advance and retreat difficult for the Romans. According to Tacitus, prior to the battle, Caractacus is said to have exhorted his countrymen that it would either” win back their freedom or enslave them forever”

The Roman commander, Publius Ostorius Scapula, was at first reluctant to launch an assault on the British lines. The Romans crossed the river without difficulty. They then faced a constant volley of missiles, but employed the testudo formation of locked shields to protect themselves, they then dismantled the stone ramparts. Once the Romans were inside the Celtic defences, the two forces locked in deadly combat and fierce fighting ensued.

Fighting off the Roman attack on three sides, with inferior weapons and with inadequate or no protection in the form of body armour, the Britons were forced to withdraw to the hilltops, with the Romans in pursuit. Their lines broke, and they were caught between the heavily armed legionaries and the lightly armed auxiliaries.

Caratacus’s wife, son, and daughter were captured, possibly in or around Caer Caradoc Hill Fort and his brother surrendered, but Caractacus himself escaped, to be later treacherously handed over to the Romans in chains by his fellow Celt, Cartmandua, Queen of the Brigantes, from whom he had sought refuge. Caractacus and his family were then taken as prisoners to Rome. Ostorius Scapula, the victor of the battle, died shortly after Caractacus was taken to Rome.

OFFICIAL AND REGISTERED CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS SINCE 1983-CLAN OF OUR ANCESTORS

SCOTTISH CLAN – IRISH CLAN – NORSE CLAN

Preserving Our Past, Recording Our Present, Informing Our Future

Ancient and Honorable Clan Carruthers CCIS

carruthersclan1@gmail.com  clancarruthers1@gmail.com

coacarrutehrs

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS HISTORIAN AND GENEALOGIST

New Blog Banner 05

You can find us on our main facebook pages at :

SILVER WINGS-https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClanLLC/

GOLD WINGS – https://www.facebook.com/carrutherscarrothers.pat.9

CLAN CARRUTHERS FAMILY HISTORY – https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClan

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/3878691252182714

CLAN CARRUTHERS INT SOCIETY- https://www.facebook.com/groups/394653845137709

CLAN CARRUTHERS – BORDER REIVERS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/434959914239094

ANCIENT HISTORY, Scotland History, Uncategorized

CARATACUS – CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS

 

CARATACUS OR COROTACUS

CARRUTHERS DNA  ANCESTOR 

 

Caractacus, sometimes known as Caratacus or Caradoc, was the son of the Celtic king, Cunobeline, was the king of the Catuvellauni tribe inhabited the Hertfordshire area. The Catuvellauni were an aggressive tribe, who extending their territory at the expense of nearby tribes like the Atrebates and had previously opposed the Romans under their chief Cassivellaunus.

Following the death of Cunobelinus, his kingdom was divided between Caractacus and his brother, Togodumnus, who became the leaders of a Celtic campaign that succeeded in resisting the invaders for a period of nearly nine years.

Emperor Claudius launched his invasion of Britain in the summer of 43 AD. Caractacus adopted guerrilla tactics to resist the Roman general Aulus Plautius. The Dobunni tribe of western Britain submitted to the invaders, but Caractacus and his brother Togodumnus met the Romans in battle in the lands of the Cantii tribe (now Kent).

Battle of Medway StoneBattle of Medway Stone

The historian Cassius Dio, the only source of information on the battle, does not name its location. The Romans are thought to have used existing trackways as they moved west from their embarkment site at Richborough, near Dover and the most well-travelled prehistoric trackway would have been the route of the later Pilgrims’ Way, which forded the River Medway at Aylesford. Other theories, however, argue that the river is narrow enough at Aylesford not to present significant difficulties in crossing, and place the battle closer to Rochester, where a large Iron Age settlement then stood. Further evidence of a more northern location has been unearthed at Bredgar, where a find of a hoard of Roman coins from the period has been interpreted as being buried for safekeeping before a battle. This hoard could, however, post-date the battle by as much as 20 years.

The battle was opened by the Romans before dawn, as there was no bridge over the river that divided the opposing forces, a detachment of Celtic Cohorts swam across the water and attacked the Celts’ chariot horses, slashing at their legs, which effectively dismounted a large contingent of the Celtic charioteers. The bulk of the invasion force spearheaded by Legio II Augusta under the future Emperor Vespasian surged across the river, under the overall command of Titus Flavius Sabinus II, attacking the British flank and rear. The fighting ended without a result. On the following second day, an attack led by Gnaeus Hosidius Geta almost led to his capture by Caractacus’ forces. The Romans retaliated and the Celts were forced into flight. Caractacus then withdrew across the Thames into Essex.

Caractacus lost much of the south-east after being defeated in the two crucial battles on the rivers Medway and Thames. Some tribes, realising that the end was near, made peace with the invaders, but Caractacus fought on. After Togodumnus was slain, possibly after having been taken prisoner, and resistance to the Romans collapsed in the South-East of England, Caractacus established himself with the Dubonni tribe, He then went on to lead the Silures and Ordovices of Wales against Plautius’ successor as governor, Publius Ostorius Scapula.

The Romans marched on Wales and Caractacus proceeded north in an attempt to join forces with the fierce Ordovices of North Wales. He was finally defeated at the Battle of Caer Caradoc by Scapula in 51 A.D in the mountains of North Wales in the territory of the Ordovices.

The site of the battle is unknown, prior to the battle Caractacus is said to have exhorted his countrymen that it would either ” win back their freedom or enslave them forever”. The battle resulted in a Roman victory. His wife and daughter were captured and his brothers surrendered. Caratacus himself escaped and fled northwards to the lands of the Brigantes tribe, where the Brigantian queen, Cartimandua, treacherously handed him over to the Romans in chains. The Brigantes later revolted against Cartimandua and her Roman allies, led by Venutius, who had once been Cartimandua’s husband and the Romans were obliged to intervene to save the queen. Caractacus and his family were taken as prisoners to Rome

First in the procession came the king’s dependents and retinue; next to his brothers, his wife and daughter, and last himself was presented to public view; his body was mostly naked and painted with figures of beasts; he wore a chain of iron about his neck, and another about his middle; the hair on his head hanging down in curled locks covered his back and shoulders. Caradoc neither by his looks nor language pleaded for mercy. The Roman historian Cassius Dio recorded:-

Caractacus

 

 

“Caratacus, a barbarian chieftain who was captured and brought to Rome and later pardoned by Claudius, wandered about the city after his liberation; and after beholding its splendour and its magnitude he exclaimed: ‘And can you, then, who have got such possessions and so many of them, covet our poor tents?'”

Emperor Claudius spared Caractacus and he spent the remainder of his life in Rome. With the capture of Caratacus, much of southern Britain from the Humber to the Severn was pacified and garrisoned throughout the 50s.

 

 

 

 

 

OFFICIAL AND REGISTERED CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS SINCE 1983-CLAN OF OUR ANCESTORS

SCOTTISH CLAN – IRISH CLAN – NORSE CLAN

 

Preserving Our Past, Recording Our Present, Informing Our Future

Ancient and Honorable Clan Carruthers CCIS

carruthersclan1@gmail.com  clancarruthers1@gmail.com

 

coacarrutehrs

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS HISTORIAN AND GENEALOGIST

New Blog Banner 05

You can find us on our main facebook pages at :

SILVER WINGS-https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClanLLC/

GOLD WINGS – https://www.facebook.com/carrutherscarrothers.pat.9

CLAN CARRUTHERS FAMILY HISTORY – https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClan

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/3878691252182714

CLAN CARRUTHERS INT SOCIETY- https://www.facebook.com/groups/394653845137709

CLAN CARRUTHERS – BORDER REIVERS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/434959914239094

 

Uncategorized, United States

HELEN BOND CARRUTHERS – CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS

HELEN BOND CARRUTHERS

 

Helen Bond Carruthers was a cashmere sweater designer in the 1950’s and 60’s. I was lucky enough to be able to obtain one of her sweaters at a thrift store back in 2001 for only $12. Back then I did not know anything about her, but just fell completely in love with the sweater itself, with it’s delicate embroidery and applique design. Later I learned the history of Ms. Carruthers and it made owning one feel even more special. 
 
 
At the time that I purchased the sweater I could not stop wearing it. I liked the cream color ground with the tonal embellishments and it’s sturdy construction; it looked antique. I attended a meeting wearing the sweater and the person I was meeting asked if it was an Helen Bond Carruthers from Kentucky? I said, “why yes, how did you know”? Then, she proceeded to tell me the story about how she and her sister came to own one.  Her parents had purchased the sweaters for their sweet 16’s birthday. Ms. Carruthers was well known in Kentucky for her sweater embellishments; working right out of her home. It was a privilege to own one back then (late 50’s) because they cost $100. You can only imagine what type of money that meant back then and you realize why they sell for so much now, between $300-$500! They are collectors items.
 
She then volunteered to show me hers at our next meeting. When I saw it, I secretly wanted to steal it; it was AMAZING! It was mint green with colorful embroidery and a big Asian embroidered butterfly on the back; and it was in perfect condition! Thinking back now, her sweater would easily fetch the $500 price tag that collectors pay for them today. I loved hearing that history first hand from a person who had an original, directly from Ms. Carruthers herself. That was so great and coincidental.
 
When I began my history search on her then I also learned that she would use 1920’s antique Belgian lace and linens to adorn her sweaters. Now it made sense why mine looked antique. She would purchase very good cashmere sweaters, shorten the sleeves and torso, and then proceed to make her original art using: embroidery, pearl buttons, needle point, silk embroidered appliqués, exotic buttons, and a slew of other items she incorporated to make these magnificent, one-of-a-kind sweaters. 
 
The other fascination that I have with her is how she was a real time entrepreneur; starting her business in an era where women were not known to be heading their own company. It all started in her home with her love of art. She has definitely inspired me as a clothing designer.
 

 

 

OFFICIAL AND REGISTERED CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS SINCE 1983-CLAN OF OUR ANCESTORS

SCOTTISH CLAN – IRISH CLAN – NORSE CLAN

 

Preserving Our Past, Recording Our Present, Informing Our Future

Ancient and Honorable Clan Carruthers CCIS

carruthersclan1@gmail.com  clancarruthers1@gmail.com

 

coacarrutehrs

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS HISTORIAN AND GENEALOGIST

New Blog Banner 05

You can find us on our main facebook pages at :

SILVER WINGS-https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClanLLC/

GOLD WINGS – https://www.facebook.com/carrutherscarrothers.pat.9

CLAN CARRUTHERS FAMILY HISTORY – https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClan

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/3878691252182714

CLAN CARRUTHERS INT SOCIETY- https://www.facebook.com/groups/394653845137709

CLAN CARRUTHERS – BORDER REIVERS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/434959914239094

 

 

carruthersland, Castles in Carruthersland, Uncategorized

FINLAGGEN CASTLE, ISLAY, CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS

FINLAGGAN CASTLE

 

Finlaggan Castle (Scottish Gaelic: Port an Eilean, Anglicized: Fort of the Island), also known as Eilean Mor Castle is a ruined fortified house located on the isle of Eilean Mór on Loch Finlaggan, Islay, Scotland.

Argyll & Dunbartonshire: On isle of Islay, about 3 miles west and south of Port Askaig, on minor road and foot north of A846, on island near north end of Loch Finlaggan, at Finlaggan.

There was a kingdom of the Isles, subject to Norway, from about 900. In the 12th century, Somerled, of mixed Norse and Celtic blood, pushed the Norsemen out of much of Scotland and took control of their territories. He was assassinated at Renfrew in 1164 when at war with Malcolm IV, King of Scots. He was succeeded by his sons Reginald in Kintyre and Islay, Dugald in Lorn, Mull and Jura, and Angus in Bute, Arran and North Argyll.

Finlaggan was a centre power of the mighty MacDonald Lord of the Isles, but little remains except some walls on two islands in a pretty spot in Loch Finlaggan on Islay in Argyll on the western seaboard of Scotland.

It was once a residence and stronghold of Lord of the Isles and two Border Revelier families, Carruthers and Armstrong. The Lords of the Isles were descended from a 12th century prince named Somerled. Built in the 12th century, with masonry walls, possibly built on the remains of an earlier 8th or 9th century fort.

 

Finlaggan was a centre power of the mighty MacDonald Lord of the Isles, but little remains except some walls on two islands in a pretty spot in Loch Finlaggan on Islay in Argyll on the western seaboard of Scotland.

Ruin or site   NR 388681   OS: 60   PA45 7QT

In a sense Finlaggan acted much as Westminster Abbey did in England; a place where religion and political power came together to anoint a new leader and underline the power of the leader. When a new Lord of the Isles was crowned, the ceremony brought together the Bishop of Argyle, the Bishop of the Isles, and as many as 7 priests to attend them. The heads of all major clans had to be present.
 
One of the traditions was that the shape of a footprint was carved into a rock, and the new lord, clad in white, placed his foot in the footprint, symbolically stepping in the footsteps of his ancestors and vowing to uphold their traditions and honesty in rule.
 
When the ceremony was finished the Lord feasted his people for 7 days and gave largesse to the clerics, musicians, and bards who took part on the ceremony. After the new Lord was installed he would gather his councillors together and retire to Council Island to go over the most important administrative questions of the day. Here the Lord would judge legal cases, and issue proclamations.
 
Grave slabs in the chapel
Grave slabs in the chapel.  The remains of a 14th century chapel occupies the highest point of ground on the island, surrounded by a burial ground. A number of medieval and slightly late grave slabs have been brought together here under protective coverings.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Effigy of Domhnall Mac Gilleasbuig, tenant of Finlaggan in the 1540s
 
 
 
The finest belongs to Donald MacGilleasbuig, chief tenant in the 1540s. another, more worn grave slab depicts a 16th century knight. Nearby is the poignant grave slab to a small child.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The castle, chapel, and a modern visitor centre are now in the care of a charitable trust. The trust has converted a derelict farm building into a museum, where you can see items found during excavations at the site. Among the range of artefacts on display is a fascinating quilted garment of sheep wool worn under armour. Another artefact is a medieval cross used by the Lords of the Isles. Other finds at the site include a musical instrument pin, a cross-head, and a quern. Finlaggan was excavated for the popular Channel Four television series Time Team in 1995.
 
 There seems to have been an Iron Age fortification on the large island. Then sometime in the 12th century a stone castle was built atop the earlier fort. This in turn was torn down, possibly in the 15th century. Later a council house was built atop part of the castle ruins.

 

A nearby smaller island called Eilean na Comhairle (Council Island) was traditionally used to hold council meetings, while the larger island housed Finlaggan Castle and chapel. The ruins of a chapel, dedicated to St Finlaggan a contemporary of St Columba, and many other buildings stand on the larger island, Eilean Mor.The trail to the castle also passes the remains of 16th century ‘lazy beds’ used to cultivate crops. The lazy beds were built on top of Bronze Age huts.
 
 
The modern boardwalk does not follow an ancient causeway. About 30m south west there appears to be a line of boulders extending out into the loch, so perhaps there was a simple causeway for access. However there also appears to be the remains of a pier of stones on the north west shore of the island, so it is possible that the only access was by boat, which certainly have added to a sense of security.
 
 

‘Castel of Falinghan or Falinghan’ is marked on Blaeu’s map of Islay, although it is apparently shown in Loch Gorm on the Rhinns of Islay, not at Finlaggan.

Finlaggan was a centre power of the mighty MacDonald Lord of the Isles, but little remains except some walls on two islands in a pretty spot in Loch Finlaggan on Islay in Argyll on the western seaboard of Scotland.
 

 

 
 

The whole area became part of the kingdom of Scots in 1266 after the Battle of Largs in 1263.  It was at this time that the Carruthers and Armstrongs were in residence in this castle.   Later, toward the early 1300’s,  Angus Og MacDonald – grandson of Donald, a son of Reginald, and hence MacDonald – a friend and supporter of Robert the Bruce who fought at Bannockburn, died at Finlaggan in 1328. His son, John of Islay, was the first to use the title Lord of the Isles. The independence of the Lords, however, and their power and influence, caused constant trouble for the kings of Scots. A campaign by Donald, 2nd Lord, led to the bloody Battle of Harlaw in 1411, and Alexander, 3rd Lord, was twice imprisoned by James I. James IV eventually destroyed the power of the Lords in a campaign in 1493, and had John, the then Lord of the Isles, imprisoned until his death in 1503. Attempts were made to restore the Lordship, but these were ultimately unsuccessful.

Finlaggan was a centre power of the mighty MacDonald Lord of the Isles, but little remains except some walls on two islands in a pretty spot in Loch Finlaggan on Islay in Argyll on the western seaboard of Scotland.
 

Finlaggan itself was held by the MacGillespie family after the Lordship collapsed, and they may have had a house on the island. Islay was to become a property of the Campbells.

 

OFFICIAL AND REGISTERED CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS SINCE 1983-CLAN OF OUR ANCESTORS

SCOTTISH CLAN – IRISH CLAN – NORSE CLAN

 

Preserving Our Past, Recording Our Present, Informing Our Future

Ancient and Honorable Clan Carruthers CCIS

carruthersclan1@gmail.com  clancarruthers1@gmail.com

 

coacarrutehrs

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS HISTORIAN AND GENEALOGIST

New Blog Banner 05

You can find us on our main facebook pages at :

SILVER WINGS-https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClanLLC/

GOLD WINGS – https://www.facebook.com/carrutherscarrothers.pat.9

CLAN CARRUTHERS FAMILY HISTORY – https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClan

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/3878691252182714

CLAN CARRUTHERS INT SOCIETY- https://www.facebook.com/groups/394653845137709

CLAN CARRUTHERS – BORDER REIVERS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/434959914239094

 

 

 

Disclaimer Ancient and Honorable Carruthers Clan International Society CCIS LLC is the official licensed and registered Clan of the Carruthers Family.  This Clan is presently registered in the United States and Canada, and represents members worldwide.  All content provided on our web pages is for family history use only.  The CCIS is the legal owner of all websites, and makes no representation as to the accuracy or completeness of any information on these sites or by following any link provided. The CCIS will not be responsible for any errors or omissions or availability of any information. The CCIS will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information. We do not sell, trade or transfer to outside parties any personal identifications. For your convenience, we may provide links to various outside parties that may be of interest to you. The content on CCIS is design to support your research in family history.      ( CCIS -LLC copyright 2017 - 2020)

 

Authors, Carruthers history, Uncategorized

ALEX WOOF – ST ANDREWS UNIVERSITY – AUTHOR – CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS

ALEX WOOF

ST ANDREWS UNIVERSITY

Alex Woolf FSA Scot (born 12 July 1963) is a British medieval historian and academic. He specialises in the history of Britain and Ireland and to a lesser extent Scandinavia in the Early Middle Ages, with a particular emphasis on interaction and comparison across traditional ethnic boundaries. He is a senior lecturer at the University of St Andrews.

Alex Woolf | University of St Andrews - Academia.edu

He is author of volume two in the New Edinburgh History of Scotland, covering the period between 789 and 1070. For this he won the 2008 Saltire Society award for “history book of the year”.

He is the younger brother of the ancient historian Greg Woolf.

In 1995, Woolf was appointed a lecturer in archaeology at the University of Wales, Lampeter.

From 1997 to 2001, he was a lecturer in Celtic and early Scottish history and culture at the University of Edinburgh. In 2001, he moved to the University of St Andrews as a lecturer in history: he was later promoted to senior lecturer.

SELECTED WORKS :

  • “Caedualla Rex Brettonum and the passing of the Old North”, Northern History 41.1, 1-20 (2004)
  • Woolf, Alex, ed. (2005). Beyond the Gododdin: dark age Scotland in medieval Wales: the Proceedings of a Day Conference Held on 19 February 2005. St Andrews: University of St. Andrews, Committee for Dark Age Studies. ISBN 978-0951257388.
  • Woolf, Alex, ed. (2006). Landscape and environment in Dark Age Scotland. St Andrews: The Committee for Dark Age Studies, University of St Andrews. ISBN 978-0951257364.
  • “Dun Nechtain, Fortriu and the Geography of the Picts”; Scottish Historical Review 2006 ; 85(2): 182-201
  • “The expulsion of the Irish from Dyfed”; Ireland and Wales in the Middle Ages; Karen Jankulak, Jonathan Wooding (ed); Four Courts Press 2007; 102-115
  • Woolf, Alex (2007). From Pictland to Alba, 789-1070 (New Edinburgh History of Scotland). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0748612345.
  • Woolf, Alex, ed. (2009). Scandinavian Scotland, 20 Years After: the proceedings of a day conference held on 19 February 2007. St Andrews: University of St. Andrews, Committee for Dark Age Studies. ISBN 978-0951257371.

OFFICIAL AND REGISTERED CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS SINCE 1983-CLAN OF OUR ANCESTORS

SCOTTISH CLAN – IRISH CLAN – NORSE CLAN

Preserving Our Past, Recording Our Present, Recording Our Future

Ancient and Honorable Carruthers Clan Int Society LLC

carruthersclan1@gmail.com

cropped-wider-banner-black

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS HISTORIAN AND GENEALOGIST

New Blog Banner 05

You can find us on our main facebook pages at :

SILVER WINGS-https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClanLLC/

GOLD WINGS – https://www.facebook.com/carrutherscarrothers.pat.9

CLAN CARRUTHERS FAMILY HISTORY – https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClan

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/3878691252182714

CLAN CARRUTHERS INT SOCIETY- https://www.facebook.com/groups/394653845137709

CLAN CARRUTHERS – BORDER REIVERS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/434959914239094

Disclaimer Ancient and Honorable Carruthers Clan International Soci
Authors, Uncategorized

BRONWEN HOSIE – CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS

BROWEN HOSIE

AUTHOR

Hi-I am a retired teacher now in my seventies. I was born and raised in Wales,however, for the last thirty years I have lived in Scotland with my husband and family. When I was in my late forties I obtained an M.A. at Glasgow University where I studied Celtic Civilisation, Welsh, German and Russian.

For almost thirty years my private interest has been the research of Celtic history and legend. During this research I discovered a method which equates people in legend with people in history. This is not speculation-it is a method which can be cross-referenced and checked.

In 2017 ‘The History Press’ published an online article of mine regarding King Arthur which is the first I have proffered for consideration. I followed that with an article on Saint Patrick.

OFFICIAL AND REGISTERED CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS SINCE 1983-CLAN OF OUR ANCESTORS

SCOTTISH CLAN – IRISH CLAN – NORSE CLAN

Preserving Our Past, Recording Our Present, Recording Our Future

Ancient and Honorable Carruthers Clan Int Society LLC

carruthersclan1@gmail.com

cropped-wider-banner-black

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS HISTORIAN AND GENEALOGIST

New Blog Banner 05

You can find us on our main facebook pages at :

SILVER WINGS-https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClanLLC/

GOLD WINGS – https://www.facebook.com/carrutherscarrothers.pat.9

CLAN CARRUTHERS FAMILY HISTORY – https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClan

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/3878691252182714

CLAN CARRUTHERS INT SOCIETY- https://www.facebook.com/groups/394653845137709

CLAN CARRUTHERS – BORDER REIVERS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/434959914239094

Disclaimer Ancient and Honorable Carruthers Clan International Soci
Carruthers history, carruthersland, Castles in Carruthersland, Uncategorized

CRAIL CASTLE – CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS

coatofarms header-2

CRAIL CASTLE

Crail Castle was a royal residence from the 12th century but only a short section of wall remains of it.

Built on a rocky clifftop outcrop overlooking a natural harbour to the south-west, the site is of clear strategic importance. The name Crail derives from a Pictish word cognate with the Welsh caer for “fort” possibly combined with the Gaelic ail for “rock”, perhaps suggesting “rock fort” or “cliff fort”. It has been speculated that there was a Pictish fort here before the castle and there was a settlement at Crail in the 9th century.
David I ( CARRUTHERS ANCESTOR) is said to have frequently stayed at the castle in the second quarter of the 12th century however the first specific mention of the castle doesn’t come until the reign of his grandson and successor, Malcolm IV (1153 to 1165), ( CARRUTHERS ANCESTOR)when a chapel within the castle dedicated to St Rufus or St Rufe, also known as St Maolrubha of Applecross, was mentioned.
Later references to the Moitt de Craile or Mote of Carrail have led to the suggestion that the first castle was built on a motte which may be the case but it is also possible that the motte may have actually referred to the rocky outcrop on which the castle was built.
What form the castle took is unknown however as the remains are so fragmentary. A section of mortared masonry measuring around 5.2m long by 1.4m wide and 1.4m tall is all that remains, at the southern end of which are the footings of a round tower. This would appear to represent the southern corner of a curtain wall which enclosed an approximately square area aligned approximately north-east to south-west.
David I’s only son and heir, Henry, Earl of Northumberland, ( CARRUTHERS ANCESTOR)married Ada de Warenne and it’s possible that Crail Castle was given to her as part of her dowry. She was certainly in possession of the burgh of Crail in the mid-12th century when she granted land to various religious establishments.
Henry predeceased his father in 1152 and Ada and Henry’s son, Malcolm, (CARRUTHERS ANCESTOR)was made David’s heir, succeeding to the throne as Malcolm IV upon David’s death in 1153. Malcolm’s reign was a short one however and he died unmarried in 1165, being succeeded by his brother, William I, known as William the Lion. ( CARRUTHERS ANCESTOR)When their mother, Ada, died in 1178 Crail Castle reverted to the Crown and Crail was made a royal burgh in the same year.
In 1186 William married Ermengarde de Beaumont ( CARRUTHERS ANCESTORS) and it is thought that she was granted Crail Castle as part of her dowry. William signed several charters at Crail during his reign and by 1212 the castles of Crail and Kinghorn had been placed under constables who were responsible to the Sheriff of Crail, later known as the Sheriff of Fife, who at that time was Geoffrey de Inverkunglas.
William I died in 1214 and was succeeded by his son, Alexander II, ( CARRUTHERS ANCESTOR) who in 1221 married Joan, daughter of King John of England. As part of the dowry arrangements the castles of Crail and Kinghorn were to pass to Joan should Alexander’s mother, Ermengarde, predecease him.
Alexander signed charters at Crail and following Ermengarde’s death in 1234 he granted the barony of Crail to Richard de Beaumont, who is thought to have been the nephew or great-nephew of Ermengarde. Richard in turn pledged or leased the barony to Walter Stewart of Dundonald, 3rd High Steward of Scotland, in exchange for money towards a journey to the Holy Land.
The date of Richard’s death is not know but Walter Stewart died in 1246 and following their deaths the barony of Crail returned to the Crown. Walter’s executors however successfully petitioned for it to be returned to them until the end of the lease and in 1247 a Walter of Crail is described as a clerk to Alexander Stewart of Dundonald, 4th High Steward of Scotland, while witnessing a grant by Alexander to the monks of Paisley Abbey. This Walter may have been Walter Bailloch Stewart, fourth son of the 3rd High Steward and brother to Alexander. In 1252 Alexander confirmed his earlier charter to Paisley Abbey and this was witnessed by, amongst others, Walter Bailloch Stewart and William, Lord of Crail. William may have been William Stewart, the younger brother of Walter and Alexander.
Some repairs were made to a house in the castle (“domus infra castrum”) and paid for by the Royal Exchequer during the reign of Alexander III in 1264.
By the end of the 13th century the barony of Crail appears to have been in Royal hands again as in 1294, during the over lordship of Edward I of England, John Balliol granted it to Isabella de Beaumont, lady of Vescy, as a descendant of Richard de Beaumont through her mother, Agnès de Beaumont. In November of that year the English king granted Isabella, the widow of John de Vescy, the right to hold a market at her manor of Crail every Wednesday and an annual fifteen day fair there.
At Easter 1296 Balliol took possession of the barony of Crail once again on account of the Wars of Independence however following Edward’s invasion of Scotland in 1296 Isabella performed fealty to Edward at Ipswich in December and received a sasine of Crail which she held by remission of her mother.
May be an image of brick wall and outdoors
In May 1305 an inquest was held into the barony of Crail which resulted in Isabella giving to Edward the manor of Crail with cáin and other appurtenances. This was then granted back to her for her lifetime and was to pass to her brother, Henry de Beaumont, later Earl of Buchan, who had fought under Edward ath the Battle of Falkirk.
In 1309 Lawrence of Wormiston was Constable of Karale and a charter by Robert the Bruce in the following year confirmed Lawrence de Weirmestoun confirmed him as Constable and referred to it as an office held by his ancestors since ancient times.
In 1312 Robert set out the commodities, fees and rights of the Constable of Crail in a retour. These included the custody of the castle, holding all the farms belonging to the King within the barony of Crail, the right to take twenty white fish per day from one boat landing at Crail for the payment of a penny, one ling for a penny from every boat landing ling, from every brewer a bottle and a half of ale from every brew for a penny, and forty shillings annually from the King. One of the witnesses to the retour was Walter de Carale.
Robert of Wormiston was Constable of Crail in 1358 and a John de Carale is on record in 1366. Towards the end of the 14th century the male line of Wormiston seems to have failed as the estate passed to Robert’s two daughters, Annas and Issobel, or Anna and Isabel, of Wormiston.
Isabel married Duncan Spens, second son of John de Spens of Muirton or Mairston and a descendant of the MacDuff Earls of Fife, and Wormiston passed to their heirs. The Constabulary of Crail may have passed with Wormiston as in December 1458 James II confirmed Alexander Spens of Wormiston, a great-grandson of Isabel and Duncan, and his heirs in the office of constable of Carrale which his father, Murdoch Spens, had resigned.
In 1497 David Spens of Wormiston, son of Alexander, was served heir to his grandfather, Murdoch, in Wormiston and as Constable of Crail.
May be an image of nature
James V granted a charter to the collegiate church of Crail in November 1526 in which he described Crail as “an ancient borough where sundry princes, his predecessors, had made their residence and dwelling-place, and as he and his successors might do in time to come as reasonable causes and occasions should befall.” This would suggest that the castle was still habitable at this time. On the 16th of June 1538 Mary of Guise landed at Crail ahead of her wedding to James. It isn’t clear why she landed here specifically but it may have been due to the location of the royal castle.
The castle may have been destroyed in 1544 by the forces of Henry VIII of England during the Rough Wooing. David Spens died in 1549 and since his son, also David, had predeceased him he was succeeded by his grandson, Sir David Spens of Wormiston. In March 1563 or 1564 Mary, Queen of Scots, granted to Sir David Spens and his heirs the castle of Craill which his ancestors, the Spens lords of Wirmestoun, were hereditary constables and custodians of. The charter mentions that the castle had been substantially destroyed with only the motte land remaining and that Sir David had permission to rebuild it, although it is unclear if he exercised that right.
May be an image of nature
In 1566 Sir David had a charter of the lands of Wormiston and Pettincrieff, “the mote of Carrail, commonly callit the Castle of Carrail”, the office of Constable of Crail and responsibility for the keeping of the King’s muir.
Sir David was one of the party who attempted to kidnap Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox and Regent of Scotland, at Stirling in September 1571 however ironically he was shot and killed while trying to protect Lennox. As a result Sir David’s estates and titles were forfeited and in October of the same year James VI granted the lands of Wolmerstoun, Kingis-carne, Breidles, Pettincreif and Lady-orchard, the lands of Mairstoun, and the office of constable of Craill which was held by David Spens of Wolmerstoun to Patrick Lindsay, 6th Lord Lindsay of the Byres.
The Spens family were evidently restored to their estates as in July 1583 the King confirmed an older charter by Sir David to James Spens, his first son and heir apparent, and his heirs, of the lands of Wylmerstoun, the lands of Pettincreif, the Moitt de Craile, once the castle of Craill, the office of constable of Craile and its fees, the Kingis-mure of Craill and various other possessions.
May be an image of castle and outdoors
Little seems to be written about the castle until the early 18th century by which time it was described as “the ruins of a strong castle”, indicating perhaps that the Spens family didn’t rebuild it. Certainly the references from the second half of the 16th century suggest the remains of a castle rather than an extant building. In October 1706 James Cunningham of Barns, heir to his late father, John Cunningham of West Barns, renounced in favour of William Crawford and other bailies of the burgh of Crail the “King’s Castle Yard”, two tenements and yards on either side of the Vennel leading to the harbour, and a piece of waste ground “within the Castle Wall”.
By the late 18th century the site of the castle seems to have been largely cleared and developed as a garden. Outside the garden’s walls at the eastern corner of the site a building known as the Watch House was built. Square in plan with a piend roof and pointed windows, the date 1782 was carved onto a re-used 17th century pediment.
May be an image of outdoors and brick wall
According to a report from 1803, upon the site of the castle “a gentleman has lately erected a neat summerhouse, which commands a fine prospect, and having a battery of small cannon mounted upon its top, it makes an excellent appearance from the sea.” This is likely to be the structure that is shown within the Castle Garden on the Ordnance Survey map of 1855.
In September 1838 Alexander Coldstream from Dunblane sold to Alexander Corstorphine of Pittowie “most of ground called the Castle Yard, and of two tenements of land to the north of the Castle Wall” which his cousin, the late Janet Coldstream, had owned until her death in 1836. It may be that the two buildings shown to the north-west of the Castle Garden on the Ordnance Survey map, at the southern end of Castle Street, were built on those two tenements, although this is supposition.
May be an image of nature
The two buildings shown at the southern end of Castle Street were later removed and in 1871 Crail House was built to a design by Frederick Thomas Pilkington towards the western corner of the Castle Garden. A Gothic gateway was inserted into an older wall to the north-east of the new house and a crenellated octagonal gazebo was added to the south corner of the site, rising above the old wall.
In 1937 a two storey wing was added to the south of the house. Crail House changed hands in 1971 and was converted into apartments by the new owners in the 1970s.
All that now remains of Crail Castle is a listed section of wall to the south-east of the Castle Garden. A coastal path, known as Castle Walk or Castle Promenade, has been constructed on top of the old wall.
May be an image of nature and body of water

The site of the castle is now bounded by Castle Street to the north-west, Castle Terrace to the south-west, Castle Walk to the south-east and an unnamed vennel to the north-east. To the south-east of the Castle Garden, and lower in height, is an area of ground known as the Castle Yard Park.

Carruthers tartan map poster-01

OFFICIAL AND REGISTEREDL CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS SINCE 1983-CLAN OF OUR ANCESTORS

SCOTTISH CLAN – IRISH CLAN – NORSE CLAN

Preserving Our Past, Recording Our Present, Recording Our Future

Ancient and Honorable Carruthers Clan Int Society LLC

carruthersclan1@gmail.com

coacarrutehrs

PICTURE BY DR GAIL  CARUTHERS BOHANNON GRAY

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS HISTORIAN AND GENEALOGIST

New Blog Banner 05

You can find us on our main facebook pages at :

SILVER WINGS-https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClanLLC/

GOLD WINGS – https://www.facebook.com/carrutherscarrothers.pat.9

CLAN CARRUTHERS FAMILY HISTORY – https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClan

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/3878691252182714

CLAN CARRUTHERS INT SOCIETY- https://www.facebook.com/groups/394653845137709

CLAN CARRUTHERS – BORDER REIVERS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/434959914239094

Disclaimer Ancient and Honorable Carruthers Clan International Soci
Authors

WILLY VAN RYCHEGHEM – AUTHOR- CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS

cropped-wide-banner-with-new-crestnorse

 

WILLY VAN RYCHEGHEM

 

 

  Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Economics, Faculty Member
  |  
Social Movements (History)
 
willy van ryckeghem
 
 
Post-Keynesian economist. Ph.D. University of Gent (1961) Professor of Economics at the Free University of Brussels from 1969 to 1982. Co-author with Geoffrey Maynard of various papers and the book A World of Inflation (1976).
 
 

Willy van Ryckeghem (Ghent, 1935) is a Belgian economist and statistician who devoted much of his career to Latin America. He studied economics in Ghent, Copenhagen and Paris and taught Business cycles at Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Econometrics at Ghent University from 1968 to 1982. He was also visiting Associate Professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1963-64 and Visiting Professor at the Universiti Sains Malaysia in Penang in 1976.

His first experience in Latin America was in Argentina at the Consejo Nacional de Desarrollo (Conade) in 1964-65 where he worked under the auspices of the Harvard Development Advisory Service (DAS). He teamed with British economist Geoffrey Maynard to develop a stabilization model which was applied by the following administration during the period 1967-1970. After initial success in reducing the inflation rate from 22 to 7 percent without causing a major recession, the stabilization effort broke down in 1970.[1]

His next assignment was with IPEA in Rio de Janeiro under the auspices of the so-called Berkeley Group in Brazil, where he developed the country`s first input-output table for 1959. In this context, he formulated an exact method for determining the technology matrix in a situation with secondary products.

In 1972-73, he joined the University of Michigan team of economic advisors to the Planning Ministry of Morocco. This resulted in the publication of the collective book Employment Problems and Policies in Developing Countries of which he was the editor in 1976.

In 1974, he was elected President of the Belgian Statistical Society. The same year, he published in the International Statistical Review a method for estimating measurement errors in national account statistics.

In 1976, he published together with Geoffrey Maynard A World of Inflation . In this book, they distanced themselves from the dominant monetarist school, and drew attention to structural factors in explaining differences in inflation rates between countries.<ref>Helmut Frisch : Inflation Theory 1963-79 : A Second Generation Survey, Journal of Economic Literature, Vol 15, no 4, december 1977, pp. 1289-1317 </ref

In 1982, he joined the Inter-American Development Bank in Washington DC where he led the Country Studies Division for seven years before becoming Deputy Manager of the Department of Economic and Social Development. In 1985 he presented a major study at the Latin American Studies Association (LASA) meeting at Albuquerque on the Impact of the Latin American debt crisis on the countries in the region.

After his retirement in 1997, he was instrumental in the foundation in 2001 of the Brazilian non-profit organization Pro Teste, which has since become the largest consumer organization in Latin America. Between 1975 and 1978, he was the third President of Consumers International, following Colston Warne of Consumers Union and Peter Goldman of Which?. He was awarded the Order of Social Merit because of his work with the Belgian consumer movement.

Selected publications

  • The Structure of Some Macro-Economic Growth Models : A Comparison, Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, Band 91, 1963, Heft 1. pp. 84-100
  • Some Further Properties of Cobb-Douglas Growth Models, The Southern Economic Journal, Vol. XXXI, No. 1, July 1964
  • The Effect of Information on Consumers` Attitudes toward Resale Price Maintenance (with Y. Langaskens) Applied Statistics, Vol. XV no 1, 1966, pp. 56-62
  • The Stability of the Domar Model, Econometrica Vol. 34, No. 3, July 1966
  • Public Finance and the Trade Balance : A Note on the Balanced-Foreign-Trade Multiplier, Economia Internazionale, Vol. XIX, No. 3, August 1966
  • An exact method for determining the technology matrix in a situation with secondary products, Review of Economics and Statistics, vol. 49 (1967), pp. 607-08.
  • The Secret of the Variable ICOR, The Economic Journal December 1968, Vol. LXXVIII, pp. 984-85
  • Stabilization Policy in an Inflationary Economy – Argentina (with G. Maynard) in: Development Policy – Theory and Practice Edited by Gustav F. Papanek, Harvard University Press, 1968
  • An Econometric Model of minimum wages and employment in a dual economy: the Case of Puerto Rico, in: Tijdschrift voor Sociale Wetenschappen, Gent 1969 nr. 4 pp. 100-121.
  • An Intersectorial Consistency Model for Economic Planning in Brazil, in: The Economy of Brazil Edited by H.S.Ellis, University of California Press, 1969
  • Politicas de Estabilizacion para una Economia Inflacionaria, in Desarrollo Economico, Buenos Aires, Julio-Setiembre 1972
  • Argentina 1967-70 : A Stabilization Attempt that Failed (with G. Maynard) in Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Rome December 1972.
  • A New Method to estimate Measurement Errors in National Account Statistics,(with Y. Langaskens) in : International Statistical Review, Vol. 42, No. 3, 1974, pp. 283-90
  • Employment Problems and Policies in Developing Countries (Ed.) Rotterdam University Press, 1976. ISBN 9023722728
  • A World of Inflation (with G. Maynard) Batsford, London 1976 ISBN 0713430680
  • Why Inflation Rates Differ (with G. Maynard) in Inflation in Small Countries Ed. H. Frisch, Springer Verlag, Berlin 1976.
  • Inflation and Exchange Rates (with G. Maynard) in : The European Economy beyond the Crisis Ed. G.R.Denton and J.J.N. Cooper, Bruges 1977.
  • Es eficiente el mercado secundario de la deuda? Revista de la Integracion y el Desarrollo Centroamericano, Agosto 1988 pp. 128-35.
  • The Transformation of Latin America : A Long-Term View, in Global Change and Transformation, Economic Essays in Honor of Karsten Laursen Handelshojskolens Forlag, Copenhagen 1993. ISBN 8716132157
  • Trade and Investment Flows between Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean (with Caroline Beetz), in :Latin America`s Competitive Position in the Enlarged European Market. Bernhard Fischer/Albrecht von Gleich (eds.) Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden Baden 1994.
  • Domestic Policy Variables and Foreign Direct Investment Inflows in Latin America, in Essays in Honour of Professor Sylvain Plasschaert. P.K.M.Tharakan/ D. Van Den Bulcke, eds. Springer 1995
  • O Mito das Metas de Inflacao (The Myth of Inflation Targeting), in Valor Economico ,Sao Paulo, 3-10-2011

References

  1. ^ Juan Carlos de Pablo : The Argentine Experience 1967-70, in Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 1, Issue 3, Dec. 1974

OFFICIAL AND REGISTERED CLAN CARRUTHERS  CCIS -1983-CLAN OF OUR ANCESTORS
SCOTTISH CLAN, IRISH CLAN,  NORSE CLAN

Preserving Our Past!    Recording Our Present!  Informing Our Future!

The Ancient and Honorable Carruthers Clan International Society CCIS

carruthersclan1@gmail.com                carrothersclan@gmail.com

Crest on Light Blue

 

 

CLAN CARRUTHERS INT SOCIETY CCIS HISTORIAN AND GENEALOGIST

You can find us on our main facebook pages at :

SILVER WINGS-https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClanLLC/

GOLD WINGS – https://www.facebook.com/carrutherscarrothers.pat.9

CLAN CARRUTHERS FAMILY HISTORY – https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClan

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/3878691252182714

CLAN CARRUTHERS INT SOCIETY- https://www.facebook.com/groups/394653845137709

CLAN CARRUTHERS – BORDER REIVERS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/434959914239094

Disclaimer Ancient and Honorable Carruthers Clan International Society
Authors

LORNA SMITHERS – AUTHOR-CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS

coatofarms header-new size

 

LORNA SMITHERS 

AUTHOR

 

 

 

Lorna Smithers is a poet and author based in Penwortham, Lancashire, North West England. ‘Peneverdant’ is the name of her home town in the Doomsday Book and has been translated as ‘The Green Hill on the Water’. From here she writes about her local landscape and spiritual path as an awenydd and Brythonic polytheist devoted to Gwyn ap Nudd.

GREEN HILLS ON THE WATER

 

Her three books: Enchanting the ShadowlandsThe Broken Cauldron, and Gatherer of Souls are published by the Ritona imprint of Gods & Radicals Press. Her poems have appeared in The DawntreaderBFS HorizonsEternal Haunted SummerNew Myths, and other magazines and anthologies and her local history articles in The Lancashire Evening Post. In 2012 she was the winner of the Preston Guild Poetry competition.

She works as a trainee for the Lancashire Wildlife Trust on the Manchester Mosslands where she is gaining experience of peatland conservation, growing peatland plants, surveying and monitoring, archaeological research, and writing poems for a poetry trail.

Carruthers tartan map poster-01

OFFICIAL AND REGISTEREDL CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS SINCE 1983-CLAN OF OUR ANCESTORS

SCOTTISH CLAN – IRISH CLAN – NORSE CLAN

Preserving Our Past!    Recording Our Present!  Informing Our Future!

The Ancient and Honorable Carruthers Clan International Society LLC

carruthersclan1@gmail.com                carrothersclan@gmail.com

coacarrutehrs

 

POEMS FOR THE LAND AND MYTHS FOR THE OLD GODS OF BRITAIN

CLAN CARRUTHERS INT SOCIETY CCIS HISTORIAN AND GENEALOGIST

New Blog Banner 05

 

You can find us on our main facebook pages at :

SILVER WINGS-https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClanLLC/

GOLD WINGS – https://www.facebook.com/carrutherscarrothers.pat.9

CLAN CARRUTHERS FAMILY HISTORY – https://www.facebook.com/CarruthersClan

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/3878691252182714

CLAN CARRUTHERS INT SOCIETY- https://www.facebook.com/groups/394653845137709

CLAN CARRUTHERS – BORDER REIVERS – https://www.facebook.com/groups/434959914239094

Disclaimer Ancient and Honorable Carruthers Clan International Societ