ireland

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS – OGHAM

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OGHAM

Ogham (Om) is a very ancient form of writing. It was written on stones, staffs, manuscripts and monuments. It was/is known as a language of energetic frequency and harmonics. It had 20 letters based on Irish trees. 4 groups of 5 notes = the Ogham pentatonic. The ancients would listen to the sound of trees in the wind to hear the individual notes. It was also used as a Lunar calender. It was used in the past and today for Sigil Magick used by the Egyptians and Druids.
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Unfortunately the topic of Ogham has been lost to most people due to suppression and conquests. It is supposed to be a medieval language but it was appropriated by the Culdean Church that time. We may never know the true origin. But in my opinion it is very ancient. Henry o Briens book: Atlantis Ireland, The Round Towers of Ireland 1834. Quotes;
“It is well known, that long prior to the arrival of Cadmus (first Greek god who apparently created it) the Greeks were in possession of alphabetic writing. Diodorus states so, but adds that a deluge had swept all away. One thousand, five hundred and fifty, before the era we count by, is agreed upon as the year, in which Cadmus visited Greece, and you have the authority of Pausanias, that he himself had read an inscription upon a monument at Megara, the date of which was 1678 before our epoch, that is, one hundred and twenty eight years before Cadmus’s time.”
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“Besides those ordinary letters of the Beth luis nion, the Irish made use of various other occult and secret forms of writing, which they call Ogham.”
“These are all peculiar, and totally separate from the Phoenician alliance.”
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He was about to publish a second book relating to Egypt. But suddenly died while visiting friends in Hanwell, he was only 27. Seems like he was taken out for exposure. He talks about the involvement of the Fir Blogs and Danann in the Scythian/Assyrian war.
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After it was appropriated It became lost to the majority of the common man. In 1712, Queen Anne’s reign a Welsh antiquary named Edward Lhyd discovered a previously unknown kind of writing on a stone in Trabeg, County Kerry (translated later to a memorial of a guy named Bruscc). This exercised the minds of many and 27 years later General Charles Vallancey was summoned to a tombstone in Mount Callan County Clare. The Ogham was identical to Lhyds script. Unlike Lhyd he used the book of Ballymote and he was first in cracking the code in modernish times. He became obsessed and absorbed into Irish culture with help from locals.
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Ogham has morphed over the centuries. It was originally 17 letters based on the Bethluisnion. And didn’t have some modern vowels. The second Aicme I surmise should be the first as the first letter of 1 to 5 in Irish is the exact order. 1= haon, 2 = dó, 3 = trí, 4 = ceathair, 5 = qúig. It was also used by the Druids as a sign language using fingers to remain in stealth for invaders. In the annals of Ireland Ogma was supposed to have invented to alphabet and Cuchulainn used it twice. In Egyptian its called Ahom. Ogham is synonymous to Aum in the East and Awen in the West. The 3 chants sound exactly the same. Used in meditation & called the sound of the universe.
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Carruthers history, carruthersland, Scotland History

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS – DALTON CHURCH

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DALTON CHURCH

CARRUTHERS CHURCH

Carruthersland

Dalton Old Parish Church 

A wee gem of a category A ruin. The ruin we see was built in 1704 and was built on the base of the walls of an earlier church which may date from the 12th century. Some of the base of the earlier church can be seen along the North side. There are stone stairs at each gable which lead to gallery doors. There is an impressive round (bullseye) window on the eastern gable. The Carruthers family features on many of the tombstones and monuments.

The ruin shares the grounds with the present Parish Church which was built in 1895, super seeding the old church.. Although a category B building it is pretty plain in comparison but it does have an interesting tower.

LITTLE DALTON OLD KIRK

CARRUTHERSLAND

The ruins of Little Dalton Kirk – CARRUTHERSLAND -(DUMFRIESSHIRE, SCOTLAND) can be found on the banks of the Dalton Burn to the NW of the village of Dalton. It lies off the road from Dormont and Mouswald and can be easily missed. The Kirk dates from the  15th century with some masonry dating to a 13th century predecessor. It served the community of Little Dalton and its lords. The village lay on the lands of Holmain, seat of the Carruthers family.   The village was a thriving crofting community until the 16th century when the village declined. This was the time that King James gave the order to kill all lowlanders.  So the Carruthers escaped to Northern Ireland with the help and advice or Lord Atchison.

The Kirk was finally abandoned in 1633 but the graveyard  was used until 1788. There is a table gravestone in memory of Dr William Carruthers dated 1764.

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Scotland History

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS – THE EXECUTION OF MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS

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THE EXECUTION OF MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS

 

RJ-Mary Queen Of Scots-043On 09 FEBURARY 1587, Queen Mary I of Scotland otherwise known As Mary Queen of Scots was executed at Fotheringhay Castle in England
On 11 August 1586, after being implicated in the Babington Plot, Mary was arrested while out riding and taken to Tixall.
 
In a successful attempt to entrap her, Sir Francis Walsingham had deliberately arranged for Mary’s letters to be smuggled out of Chartley. Mary was misled into thinking her letters were secure, while in reality they were deciphered and read by Walsingham.
 
From these letters it was clear that Mary had sanctioned the attempted assassination of Elizabeth.
 
Mary was moved to Fotheringhay Castle in a four-day journey ending on 25 September. In October, she was put on trial for treason under the Act for the Queen’s Safety before a court of 36 noblemen, including William Cecil, the Earl of Shrewsbury, and Walsingham. Spirited in her defence, Mary denied the charges. She told her triers, “Look to your consciences and remember that the theatre of the whole world is wider than the kingdom of England”. She protested that she had been denied the opportunity to review the evidence, that her papers had been removed from her, that she was denied access to legal counsel and that as a foreign anointed queen she had never been an English subject and thus could not be convicted of treason.
 
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She was convicted on 25 October and sentenced to death with only one commissioner, Lord Zouche, expressing any form of dissent. Nevertheless, Elizabeth hesitated to order her execution, even in the face of pressure from the English Parliament to carry out the sentence. She was concerned that the killing of a queen set a discreditable precedent and was fearful of the consequences, especially if, in retaliation, Mary’s son, James, formed an alliance with the Catholic powers and invaded England.
 
Elizabeth asked Paulet, Mary’s final custodian, if he would contrive a clandestine way to “shorten the life” of Mary, which he refused to do on the grounds that he would not make “a shipwreck of my conscience, or leave so great a blot on my poor posterity”. On 1 February 1587, Elizabeth signed the death warrant, and entrusted it to William Davison, a privy councillor. On 3 February, ten members of the Privy Council of England, having been summoned by Cecil without Elizabeth’s knowledge, decided to carry out the sentence at  once
 
 
At Fotheringhay, on the evening of 7 February 1587, Mary was told she was to be executed the next morning.She spent the last hours of her life in prayer, distributing her belongings to her household, and writing her will and a letter to the King of France. The scaffold that was erected in the Great Hall was draped in black cloth. It was reached by two or three steps, and furnished with the block, a cushion for her to kneel on, and three stools for her and the earls of Shrewsbury and Kent, who were there to witness the execution.
 
The executioner Bull and his assistant knelt before her and asked forgiveness, as it was typical for the executioner to request the pardon of the one being put to death. Mary replied, “I forgive you with all my heart, for now, I hope, you shall make an end of all my troubles.”Her servants, Jane Kennedy and Elizabeth Curle, and the executioners helped Mary remove her outer garments, revealing a velvet petticoat and a pair of sleeves in crimson brown, the liturgical colour of martyrdom in the Catholic Church, with a black satin bodice and black trimmings. As she disrobed Mary smiled and said she “never had such grooms before … nor ever put off her clothes before such a company”. She was blindfolded by Kennedy with a white veil embroidered in gold, knelt down on the cushion in front of the block on which she positioned her head, and stretched out her arms. Her last words were, In manus tuas, Domine, commendo spiritum meum (“Into thy hands, O Lord, I commend my spirit”).
 
 
Mary was not beheaded with a single strike. The first blow missed her neck and struck the back of her head. The second blow severed the neck, except for a small bit of sinew, which the executioner cut through using the axe. Afterwards, he held her head aloft and declared, “God save the Queen.” At that moment, the auburn tresses in his hand turned out to be a wig and the head fell to the ground, revealing that Mary had very short, grey hair.
 
Cecil’s nephew, who was present at the execution, reported to his uncle that after her death “Her lips stirred up and down a quarter of an hour after her head was cut off” and that a small dog owned by the queen emerged from hiding among her skirts
 
Mary’s request to be buried in France was refused by Elizabeth. Her body was embalmed and left in a secure lead coffin until her burial in a Protestant service at Peterborough Cathedral in late July 1587. Her entrails, removed as part of the embalming process, were buried secretly within Fotheringhay Castle. Her body was exhumed in 1612 when her son, King James VI and I, ordered that she be reinterred in Westminster Abbey in a chapel opposite the tomb of Elizabeth.
 
Interesting foot noteS
 
The Execution of Mary Stuart the short film produced in 1895 by Thomas Edison depicts the execution of Mary, Queen of Scots and is the first known film to use special effects, specifically the stop trick.
 
Many in Clan Carruthers Int Society CCIS have done their family history and are related to Mary Queen of Scots.  We have not connected her, yet, through DNA. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Uncategorized

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS – BOARD OF DIRECTORS

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CLAN CARRUTHERS INT SOCIETY CCIS

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Clan Carruthers Int Society CCIS is very proud to have a strong Board of Directors.  Most of our board members have been with us since conception of this great Carruthers Clan.

Chief :  Patrick E Carrothers

Chieftains :    Keith Carrothers – Canada

Jeff Carrothers – USA

Harold J Carruthers – Canada

Chris Carruthers – Canada

The Clan Chief and Chieftains have a lifelong position of honor.  They will always be members of the Board of Directors.  Their wisdom and guidance is priceless.

Barb Carruthers – Warnock                                 Ontario, Canada

Cynthia Farwell                                                      California,  USA

David C Carrithers                                                 Missouri,  USA

Denise Sweem Fauble                                            Iowa,   USA

Gail Caruthers Bohannon Gray                            Texas USA

John Carothers                                                        Arkansas,  USA

John L Carruthers                                                   North Carolina,  USA

Judy Carrothers Carr                                              Texas,  USA

Justin Shane Carothers                                          Arkansas, USA

LeeAnne Carrothers                                               Alaska, USA

Patricia Carrothers                                                  Chicago  USA

Susan Beattie                                                             Ontario Canada

Tammy Wise                                                              Indiana, USA

You can always contact any board member by sending an email to :  Carruthersclan1@gmail.com

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Clan Crest, CLAN TARTAN, History of Scottish Clans, Uncategorized

CLAN CARRUTHERS – IS CLAN CARRUTHERS OF ENGLAND FOLLOWING THE RULES LIKE OTHER CLANS

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THIS IS A REPRINT OF A BLOG POSTED ON ONE OF THE CLAN FRASER SITES.

CLAN CARRUTHERS SOCIETY – INTERNATIONAL IS AN EMBARRASSMENT TO ALL CLANS

This picture is their tartan, designed in 2017, and their clan badge designed by Anthony Maxwell.  

Clan Carruthers, as we all know, should have a Seraph in the center of their badge.  Yet, this is a cherub.   It did not originally have a face, so a cherub, but in time the face was added.  It is not correct, yet they think everything they do is correct. 

Recently the Lord Lyons granted them a new chief.  Even though 4 times prior every Lord Lyons seated found too many errors.  Why did the current seated Lord Lyons, after just being named in his office, grant them a chief.  George Carruthers of England was coordinating everything, and yet neither he, nor the new Chief to be showed up in court.  If they had, the courtroom would have been shocked to see a man from Pakistan standing there wanting to be chief.  

Myself and William Carruthers of Stirling went to the Lord Lyons Office to see the proclamation, and they could not find it.  It is suppose to be posted.   This Pakistan Man, does not live in Scotland, and a chief is suppose to.  He had a brand new business posted on the web, that anyone with any intelligence could see was a fake.   Guess what?   Soon afterwards, it was gone.   He says he works at a Agricultural College in England/Wales, and yet when we called they did not know him, except to say he attended seminars a couple times. 

The past Lord Lyons had started to use DNA comparison, and this Lord Lyons didnt.  

There is not genealogy to prove lineage.  Where is it?  Again, the Lord Lyons office could not confirm there was any. 

This clan carruthers had no gathering.  They could not get enough people to show up.  Yet once again, a rule of the Lord Lyons office was not followed. 

No proud Carruthers ancestor would have followed this clan

This is what is shameful.   

They recently posted this advertisement on their web site to get members to join.

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This is not their tartan.   Theirs I posted above.  

This is used by Clan Carruthers International Society CCIS.   They even tried to make their name look similar.  If they are a Scottish Clan then why are they now claiming to be a society.    More deceit!

Could it be that Clan Carruthers International Society CCIS is so successful and they arent.  I counted almost 15,000 members on facebook pages alone.    They have had 6 large Clan Gatherings since 2018 in several countries.  Canada, United States and Dr Gail Carruthers Bohannon Gray just hosted one in Scotland.  

Clan Carruthers Society International is an embarrassment to all proud Scottish Clans. 

Published by drtimfrasier

Northumberland Archeologist working on historical excavations for almost 20 years.

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The Picts

CLAN CARRUTHERS – SCOTLAND PICT SITE

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SCOTLAND PICT SITE IN ABERDEENSHIRE

This Picture Village in Scotland is one of the most important historical discoveries of 2020
The discovery of the largest pictorial site known to date in Aberdeenshire is described as
one of the most important archaeological findings of 2020.
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An Aberdeen University team discovered evidence in May that as many as 4 people could
have lived at the top of Tap O ‘ Noth near Rhynie for approximately 1700 to 1400 years.
This discovery joins the discovery of 5000-year-old textiles and hundreds of medieval
skeletons among the best discoveries according to Scotland’s main antique organization.
Edinburgh based Society of Antiquaries of Scotland says the Covid-19 pandemic has had a
profound impact on the Scottish archaeological sector, with the majority of commercial
archaeology being paralysed during lockdown and most non-public groups unable to
continue their work.
However, they said archaeologists and volunteers still managed to discover new details
about Scotland’s past in the lab and on site and thus compiled some of the very important
findings. Many thought the village of Aberdeenshire Hillfort was from the bronze or iron
age, but researchers said carbon dating suggested it was probably Pictes, dating back to the
third century AD.
This information, combined with drone overflights and laser technology, revealed no less
than 800 huts in the fort described as ′′ potentially approaching the urban ladder “. The hill
is one of the largest oldest facilities ever known discoveries in the UK. Researchers said at its
peak, he could compete with the largest known post-Roman facilities in Europe.
Pictures dominated parts of Scotland for centuries and were first mentioned in late Roman
writings as a collection of awkward social groups. They disappeared from written
documents about 1 years ago, and the Antiquarian Society said every discovery helped fill
another gap in this ′′ enigmatic ′′ period of Scottish history.
It is hoped that more excavations can take place in 2021 and people will visit Aberdeenshire
to explore the site when it’s safe to travel. Dr. Jeff Sanders, Project Leader at the Society of
Antiquaries of Scotland’s Dig It! project, said: ′′ Archaeology is about discovering stories
from Scotland and these are just a few of the new chapters that have been added despite the
pandemic. As Scotland’s archaeological strategy reminds us, archaeology is for everyone
and so we hope you’ll be inspired to get involved in 2021 when it’s sanitarily safe to do so.”
There is also new evidence that the famous Scottish textile industry goes back thousands of
years – with the oldest evidence of fabric found in the Orkney.
Evidence of woven neolithic textile was confirmed during research excavations at the
Institute of Archaeology at the University of Highlands and Islands at the Ness of Brodgar in
June. Only one other example of this type was found in Scotland. The site’s archaeologists
had not physically recovered a 5-year-old piece of fabric, but the trace he left when pressed
against a pot’s wet clay.
At the time, there was only one other evidence suggesting the use of woven textiles in
Neolithic Scotland – another clay footprint discovered in 1966 at Dumfries and Galloway. The
findings were revealed during a project launched in 2019 at the University of the Highlands
and Islands Institute of Archaeology by Jan Blatchford and Roy Towers to closely look at the
impressions left on the Grooved Ware pottery tones surfaces at Ness. Ness.
The Ness of Brodgar team has investigated this huge monumental neolithic building
complex since 2012, but all excavations and field work have been suspended this year due
to the pandemic. The team plans to resume work in 2021 with visits and open houses for the
public.
The discovery of skeletons was made in July when lockdown was lifted during the summer.
Archaeologists have started digging up skeletons and objects in a medieval Leith cemetery
that were expected to be affected by work to extend the Edinburgh tram line to Newhaven.
This is a discovery of more than 350 graves that could be back to 1300. On the first day,
Guard Archology Ltd’s professional team had already exhumed more than ten bodies from
1300 to 1650, as well as the apparent leftover from the original medieval cemetery wall.
Initial archaeological work began in November 2019 but stopped at the end of March due to
the coronavirus pandemic and lockdown measures.
Early discoveries in the first four months of digging included remains of whales that left
experts puzzled. Whale bones, which could be 800 years ago, were identified by experts
from the National Museum of Scotland and may have discovered new evidence of the city’s
secular ′′ defences ′′ against maritime attacks. Carbon dating tests must be carried out to
determine if bones can be traced back to medieval times and Leith’s early homes.
Historic Environment Scotland grants officer Amy Eastwood said: ′′ Despite numerous
archaeological work suspended this year due to the pandemic, the sector has continued to
update exciting findings. This archaeological work is essential to our understanding of
Scotland’s past, and we are delighted to support and promote the fantastic work done
nationwide.
—–

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History of Scottish Clans

CLAN CARRUTHERS – THE RELEVANCY OF CLANS IN THE 21ST CENTURY

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THE RELEVANCY OF CLANS IN THE 21ST CENTURY

Attend any Scottish heritage event and you will be immersed in all things Clan.  Many of the individuals attending these events are proud of their Scottish ancestry and, more importantly, the history of their Clan.  They will regal you with stories of battles fought long ago, cattle rustling, and Clan feuds.  These stories show the Clans at their best and at their worst, but they complete the tapestry of a proud history.  The Clan was more important than King and Country; it was the fabric of everyday life and served the function of community, governance, and protection of its members.  That is not the case in the 21st Century where communities and governments now serve the functions previously provided by the Clan and Chiefs.  This begs the question, do Clans still have relevance in the 21st Century? Or are they quaint, anachronistic entities that allow people to dress up in plaid and tell old stories?   It’s an interesting question I have been pondering for a while now, and one I have discussed with people on both sides of the ponds. Do the Clans have a role, or is it just a quaint idea to be pretended during games, St. Andrew’s Dinners, or Burns Night events?

What is a Clan The word Clan is a late Middle English word, derived from Gaelic, which translates to “children of” or “offspring”.  While it is most commonly attributed to the Scots Gaelic word clann is also found in Old Irish Gaelic (cland) and in Old Welsh (plant); all having the same meaning.  As a social practice, Clans consisted of individuals who either shared a common ancestor, had a greater familial connection, or were bound by territory.  While the word and practice can be found throughout both Gaelic and Brythonic cultures there is an ongoing debate on its modern-day use.  There are basically two different camps of thought: the first make a strong differentiation between Clans (Scottish Highlands) and Families (Scottish Lowlands); the second use Clan as an overarching term for all Scottish families.  Both arguments have merit; however, for ease of writing and due to most common usage, I will be using Clan in the overarching sense.

The Clan of the Past
When one gets to the heart of it, the raison de etre for Clans in the past was self-sustainment and protection.  Certainly, there were extended familial ties; however not all members who owed their allegiance to a specific Clan were descended from a common ancestor.  In many instances families within a region that fell under the dominion of a certain Chief, Laird, or Lord, along with the extended family, swore allegiance to that Clan and Chief.  (Indeed, this practice is at the root of the academic discussions on septs of a name.)  These communities, bound by either blood or oath, worked together for the common good of everyone in the community.  While romanticized to great extent by literary giants such as Robert Burns and Sir Walter Scott, the bare bones truth of their creation was for survival and community.

The Modern-Day Clan Today, our survival does not necessitate belonging to a Clan.  Clans are no longer the fighting, agrarian organizations we read about, instead they have evolved into social societies.  Individuals are invited to join after paying a yearly membership fee, and then participate in a myriad of social events such as dinners, tours, games, etc.  Indeed, the only sheep and coo (cow) rustling that occurs is the occasional, and temporary, theft of someone’s stuffed animal at a Highland Game.  In these instances, blackmail is provided through the expenditure of shared libations, good-hearted jesting, and always evolving into A LOT of storytelling.  To many outsiders looking in, that is the extent of it, a bit of fun a couple times a year; however, that is only the veneer.  Instead of just joining a Clan, they have joined a global entity in the Scottish Diaspora

The Scottish Diaspora

The Scots are renowned for their spirit of adventurism and determination.  These traits helped them to successfully emigrate to the various colonies and countries around the world and establish new communities.  They brought with them their families, culture, heritage, traditions, and their world-renowned Scottish hospitality.  These families flourished in their new homes, resulting in more than 30 million descendants very proud of their Scottish heritage.  It is these descendants who established the various Clan, clubs, and Scottish societies found around the world; embracing all things Scottish to include the extended Diaspora.  This is something I have experience numerous times in my own travels and interactions; Scots willing to open up their homes to a complete stranger.  While we no longer need the protection of the Clan there is something to be said for both the connected community.

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The Relevancy of Clans in the 21st Century Psychologist and Sociologists have long known the requirement for human interaction.  Abraham Maslow noted the importance of belonging in his work The Hierarchy of Needs; placing it as the third most important item required for human survival. (Only Psychological and Safety needs were more important). Multiple studies have proven a person is healthier, happier, and lives longer, more productive lives if they have healthy social interaction.

The need to belong, to identify, and to be proud of one’s shared history is not a modern revelation. This facet of human behavior was one of the cornerstones of the old Clan system, and remains so in modern times.  The added strength of today’s Clans resides in its global community.  Regardless of where we travel, there are people who have a shared ownership of Scottish history.  Our regional diversity allows us to share so much more in regards to experiences, thoughts, and philosophies; which inherently makes us better as individuals, Clans, and an ethnicity.
Are the Clans relevant in the 21st Century? I strongly believe so.  While we may not be rustling more than a stuffed coo from each other; we do provide a group for people to rely on and to commune with.  While we are proud of our individual Clans it doesn’t rely on whether you are a Beatty, Carruthers, MacGregor, Campbell, MacDonald or Frasier; it is the shared identity of a people.  A people who’s ancestors grit and determination spread them across the globe; and who’s children still carry on.

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CLAN CARRUTHERS INT SOCIETY CCIS HISTORIAN AND GENEALOGIST

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Carruthers history, Scotland History

CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS – CARRUTHERS DEPICTED IN GUY MANNING NOVEL BY SIR WALTER SCOTT

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Carruthers Depicted by Sir Walter Scott in the Novel Guy Mannering

There is a remarkable story, factual, concerning how Sir Walter Scott, in his role as principal clerk to the Court of Session, became aware of legal proceedings involving retention of an estate in the Carruthers family.  Scott had this story in mind as he developed the plot, and wrote his novel Guy Mannering.

This story underscores the significance of hereditary estate retention throughout history.  The Carruthers family owned the Mouswald land from 1320 until 1588 – 258 years.  The Holmains estate was in the Carruthers family from 1361 until 1772 – 411 years.  A. Stanley Carruthers in his book Records of the Carruthers Family, published in 1933, called the Woodfoot and Milne branches of the family “probably” the senior traceable branch of the family.  However, both Milne and Woodfoot are extinct in the male line.

This brings us to the Carruthers family of Dormont .  The ancestor of this branch was William Carruthers, 3rd son of John Carruthers, 5th Lord and 1st Baron Holmains.  He received the Charter of Carsopeland from his father in 1552.  James Carruthers, the 13th Laird, currently heads the Dormont family – 456 years later.

Can you imagine the difficult circumstances people must have had to go through to keep an estate in the family for over 450 years?  Elsewhere on this web site you can see where Carruthers estates were lost due to murder, bank failure, non-freedom of religion and marriage with no male heirs.  How the Carruthers family of Dormont has been able to retain one estate for over 450 years is nothing short of remarkable.  But this story involves a legal case that was finally closed after going before the House of Lords for a second time, almost 80 years after an illegitimate child was born.

Details of this story can be found in Records of the Carruthers Family, in Michael Robson’s book Surnames and Clansmen – Border Family History in Earlier Days,  along with the Court of Sessions records.

Extracts are provided below.

Francis, the 5th Laird of Dormont  , succeeded his grandfather in 1725.  In 1731 he married Margaret, daughter of Sir Alexander Maxwell of Monreith.  In 1735 he made a post-nuptial contract of marriage to himself and his heirs male, whom failing the heirs male of any other marriage, whom failing to any daughter he might have by Margaret Maxwell.  A clause stipulated that if a daughter was excluded from the estate by any term in the deed, she should get £1,000 sterling.  Margaret had a way of living beyond their means and the resulting financial hardship caused Francis to give up his life as a leisurely country gentleman and make some additional money.  His chosen path was in selling and delivering Galloway cattle, a potentially prosperous venture, but one that kept him away from home for extended periods of time.  During one extended absence trying to settle a lawsuit in England, he received word from home that “Mrs. Carruthers’s conduct with regard to a handsome stout fellow of a gardener named Bell at Dormont, was not a little suspicious”.   When he got home, it was obvious that his wife was “with child”.  He steadfastly exclaimed that he was not the father since he had been away from home for “nearly a whole year”.

Francis then decided to get rid of his wife by getting a divorce.   However, the questioning of the staff only provided him with suspicious circumstances, not the proof he needed at that time to justify divorce proceedings.  Undaunted, he decided to proceed anyway with the divorce action.  But, before the proceedings could be finished, after having been married ten years without a child, Margaret had a daughter, Elizabeth, on May 28, 1741.  Francis, naturally refused to acknowledge the child as his daughter.   But, since he was not divorced, the law said that the child was a legitimate heir.  Francis’ divorce from Margaret was finalized on January 6, 1742.  Not too long after delivering her child, though, Margaret fell ill and died.  While this death solved the expense problem, there still was an open question about inheritance of the child, and Margaret was no longer around to answer any questions.

Francis did not seem interested in marrying again and continuing to try to have a male heir.  Under the previous entail , there was some question as to whether or not a male child by a 2nd wife would take precedence over a female heir by his 1st wife.  Therefore, Francis spent his energy trying to prove that Elizabeth was illegitimate.  But, his time away from home turned out to be 9½ months, and under the law, since he had been home within 10 months, the child was legitimately his.

He refused to see the infant Elizabeth, “alien to his blood”, and arranged for her to be brought up in Northumberland, in what Sir Walter Scott called the “wildest part of the Cheviot Hills” at the home of “an ignorant and low farmer” named Thomas Robson.  He was paid to bring her up as his own daughter and never let her know that she had any other father.  She was known as Betty Robson.  Francis apparently did provide money for her support every year.  However, like most Cheviot farmers, Robson spent his evenings drunk and, over the years let out more and more of the story.

Elizabeth, like her mother Margaret, turned out to be an exceedingly beautiful woman, with men courting her from all over the area.  In 1758, at the age of 17, she ran off with Henry Routledge of Cumcrook and Nether Hill.  They ran away to Edinburgh and got married.  Henry, aware of her circumstances, wrote to her presumed father, Francis Carruthers, for permission to marry, but he never answered.

Henry, although from a landed family, was a 4th son of a small estate burdened with debt, so he inherited very little.  Struggling at the poverty level, and pressed to pay off debts, the couple was desparate enough to approach Francis Carruthers for money.  They started with high demands, requiring part of the Dormont estate while Francis lived, and all of it at his death.  Getting nowhere with this demand, they eventually settled on signing a “Deed of Renounciation of all Claim upon the Estate of Dormont” for £650.  Immediately after this, Francis executed another document providing Dormont would go only to his male heirs, failing any then to his brother William Carruthers and his male heirs – finalized December 8, 1759.

Francis died in 1773 and his brother, William, headed the estate for the next 14 years.  William, and the next 2 generations after him, gained little from inheriting Dormont, since the estate was still in debt, almost to the extent of its whole value.

The Routledges were unable to make the £650 last very long.  They continued scraping by, now needing to also support 2 children, John and Anne.  Sir Walter Scott stated that Henry Routledge died in the Carlisle jail.  Elizabeth died in 1768, leaving the 2 children in dire circumstances.  The plot now thickens once again.  Given that Margaret Maxwell had been a sister to Sir William Maxwell, a cousin to the mother then took it upon herself to raise the 2 children.  The cousin, by this time, was known as the Duchess of Gordon.  The Duchess had John and Anne educated and procured a job for him in India.  She also arranged a good marriage for Anne, to Mr. Majendie, the Bishop of Bangor.

In 1806, John Rutledge returned from India.  He had prospered.  While visiting Cumberland, he is believed to have crossed to Dumfriesshire and stopped at an inn close to Dormont.   Here he learned, quite by chance, of his mother’s connection with the Carruthers family.  He at once raised an action to set aside the settlement of the estate made in 1759 by Francis. The two main questions were (1) was the deed of 1759 valid, seeing that it had not been challenged for over forty years; (2) did the discharge given by Elizabeth on receipt of the £650 exclude her heir’s rights to the estate under his grandmother’s marriage contract in 1735.  It took exactly 14 years to reach an ultimate decision.  By that time John Rufledge was dead,  but his sister, Mrs. Majendie, had continued the lawsuit.  The suit was heard in every court in Scotland, even argued twice at length, before the House of Lords.  At various times, the decision had been made in each party’s favor.  However, the final decision handed down in 1820, was in the favor of William Thomas Carruthers, grand-nephew of Francis, and the 8th Laird of Dormont.

Sir Walter Scott published his novel Guy Mannering in 1815.

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CLAN CARRUTHERS – THE TRUTH IS ALWAYS OUT THERE

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THE TRUTH IS ALWAYS OUT THERE

Although we believe the information we have is factual, in an attempt to be fair and cover all bases and consider the ongoing claims regarding the College of Arms, and the communication and relationship that we the Clan Carruthers Int Society CCIS, have chosen to ask for further communication from the source.  For that reason we have written directly to the College of Arms in London, asking their advice.

Their response was:

The College of Arms would never grant a Clan Badge to anyone residing in the United States or Canada.   The College of Arms is a judiciary court system in London.   We do not have any powers in the United States and Canada, only with residents of the United Kingdom.

If the Lord Lyons wishes to hand out a clan badge or Coat of Arms from his office, it would be honorary, for they would not be registered within the offices of the United Kingdom.

The Forensic Biohistory program is still operational, and we enjoyed working with you and AXXXX SXXXX.

The Research Facts Further Conclude that:

The first Carruthers ( not spelled this way) to appear on the Peerage List was Simon Carruthers 4th Laird of Mouswald.   There have been more than 200 since, and Clan Carruthers Int Society CCIS will be proud to post them.

There is the British Armorials and later came Burkes General Armorial in 1880, both dealing with nobility on a genealogical bases only.

British Nobility, Barons, Gentrys of the United Kingdom is the list compiled only since 2013, based solely on DNA results.  We, Clan Carruthers Int Society CCIS were very fortunate to acquire this list in 2015. Only Carrothers and Carothers have tested correctly and are on this list.  One could summize that King James VI might have known they were related to royalty, and was one reason he tried to kill them all.

Clan Carruthers Society of Scotland , run by George Carruthers should be embarrassed for not knowing the difference between genealogical research and DNA findings.  They claim that the British Nobility , Barons and Gentry list is from Burkes peerage.  Cant be farther from the truth, and impossible.

There are few Carruthers who reside in Scotland who have a Coat of Arms, but there are many outside of Scotland who do have a Coat of Arms, because of the laws of Scotland regarding Scotland citizens and  the laws of other countries and their citizens are different.   Just like the laws and requirements for getting a drivers license are different wherever you live.

Clan Carruthers Society of Scotland (CCSI) should not constantly try to enforce the laws they must follow with the rest of the world, who have a totally different set of rules to follow.   That is like the people of Quebec Canada trying to enforce their laws on the people of Anchorage Alaska.

Shame on you Clan Carruthers Society of Scotland CCIS, in believe that people are that blind to the many un-truths that you state.

If you  have a problem with one person, take it up with  that one person, and stop looking ridiculous.

Original posting of Clan Carruthers Society of Scotland.

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Added Responses

More history and facts to support that Clan Carruthers of Scotland CCSI, run by George de Pompus, are filtered and twisted.

Yes the truth is indeed always out there if one desires to seek it. Clan Carruthers Society of Scotland run by George de Pompus Carruthers and Dana Norton ,  should try to move into the next century.  All their works starts in the 1800’s.

This article bears further research in order to avoid the pitfalls of simply accepting the information as “facts”.
• The author of this article is absolutely correct in stating that our LLC clan badge would not be granted by the college of arm in Scotland because as a Canadina or US based LLC, the College of arms has no jurisdiction pertaining to granting or denying a clan badge in the US or Canada, so naturally awareness of our Clan Carruthers LLC in the US is a deliberately misleading point, thinking that most people are unintelligent.  So of course this office can not legally recognize a clan outside of the United Kingdom.  No more than the Prime Minister of Canada, can tell the citizens of England what to do and not do.
• As to the question of the Lord Lyon granting Arms to persons in Canada and the US, again the US is not under his jurisdiction.
• In regards to the statement that the Lord Lyon is a separate Heraldic Authority, you would be lead to believe that his rulings cannot be questioned. In actuality the Lord Lyons court is subject to higher entities, being an inferior court:
See:

 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh v. the Royal College Physicians of Edinburgh
(1911 S.C. 1054)

Background

In 1901, Lord Balfour of Burleigh, secretary for Scotland, decided that on the occasion
of the presentation of address to Edward VII, precedence would be given
to the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh over the Royal
College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, and that this decision would be acted on till
disturbed by a higher authority.
In Feburary 1911 the RCP presented through the Secretary a petition to the King asking
for precedence over the RCS. Almost simultaneously, the RCS presented a
petition in the Court of Lyon King of Arms asking him to “find, “he has jurisdiction so
far as concerns a claim to a right of precedence” (and appending a note
reproduced in full in the source). The RCP appealed, and the case was
heard before the First Division of the Court of Session on May 18.
The source summarizes the arguments for the appellants (RCP): that in questions of
precedence there was no matter of legal right involved which could be
submitted for the determination of a Court of law; and in any event the Lyon King has
no jurisdiction to determine such a question. The respondents (RCS) replied
that questions of precedence were questions of legal right; and that
Lyon had jurisdiction to deal with them.
Advising took place on June 20, 1911, I quote in full the statements by the Lords.
See https://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/lyondocs.htm for the full text and final decision
[1059]
[…] At advising on 20th June 1911,—
Lord President.—This case originated by a petition presented in the Court of the Lord Lyon King of Arms by the Royal College of Surgeons, in which they ask for a decree
from the Lord Lyon decerning and declaring that the petitioners are entitled in all time
coming, on all public or ceremonial occasions, to precedency over the Royal College of
Physicians.
The case was before your Lordships before, and parties were allowed to amend the pleadings that they had made; and, accordingly, in the amended pleadings and the answers for the Royal College of Physicians, they plead that the Lord Lyon King of Arms has no jurisdiction to deal with the question raised in the petition. The Lyon King of Arms has pronounced an interlocutor that he has jurisdiction, and continuing the case for further procedure, and it is against that interlocutor that this appeal is before your Lordships.

 

On Nobility
• the group of people belonging to the noble class in a country, especially those with a hereditary or honorary title.

Royalty refers to the people who are members of the royal family. This includes the
king, the queen, the princes, and the princesses. Nobility, on the other hand, is also of
high breeding. … Nobles can loosely be defined as those who belong to the aristocratic
class in the society.

Baron. title of nobility, ranking below a viscount (or below a count in countries without
viscounts). In the feudal system of Europe, a baron was a “man” who pledged his
loyalty and service to his superior in return for land that he could pass to his
heirs.
Baron and Baroness
Baron is the 5th rank in the Peerage, following Duke, Marquess, Earl and Viscount.
Despite being the lowest rank, it is perhaps the oldest title. The rank was
introduced by William I to recognize those who had pledged their loyalty to
him under the feudal system. With this came the obligation to provide troops
and support for the army,and the right (and often obligation) to attend the King’s
Council They were charged with advising and supporting the King, and in
return received protection from outside forces. In the mid-1200s, Barons started
to be created by writ – personally summoned by the King based on their
accomplishments or character, and not merely because of their ownership of
land. By 1388, this was done via Letters Patent, and the once feudal claims to the title
had fully shifted from territorial to personal. Additional degrees of peerage
were soon added and they all become collectively known as the Peerage. The female
version of the title is Baroness.

Thomas, son of John Carruthers, received a grant of Mouswald from Robert Bruce.
(1320). Their estate stretched northward into the district of Wamphray, which they
shared with the Laird of Johnstone, and they were made Barons of Mouswald in
the 15th century. His grandson, brother of the 2nd Baron, 7th of Mouswald who was
Warden of the West March (1472) and died at the Battle of Kirtle (1484).
Sir Simon, 8th of Mouswald, 3rd Baron, was murdered in 1504, which passed the
Barony to his son, again a Simon, 9th of Mouswald. The Mouswald line survived
through to Simon 10th of Mouswald and 5th Baron but ended when he died on a border
raid in 1548.
The following is an excerpt from Burkes Peerage : (see last paragraph, right hand column)

• On the subject of Spelling of Carruthers/Carrothers pertaining to listings in family British Armorials, again further research yields more accurate information
See https://www.carothers-carruthers.com/nameorigin.htm
“”At the time that surnames came into gradual use in Scotland, i.e. during the 12th and
13th Centuries, the family living at Carruthers undoubtedly adopted it as its surname and accordingly the race to which the “first Carruthers” belonged, cannot be ascertained. It is interesting to notice that at a comparatively early date, the name is to be found in
England in the counties of Cumberland, Durham and Yorkshire. While in Scotland the
most common and usual spelling was Carruthers (with slight variations), in England it
became disguised as Carrothers, Carrodus and Cruddas (in Yorkshire), Croudace (in
Durham), &c., as in America where the spelling changed to Carothers, Caruthers,
Carrothers, Cruthers, etc. There were many other earlier and more confusing variations in the spelling. “

The Sketchy Dormont Line

• The Still Sketchy Dormont Line and the claim of Carruthers Arms being registered with
the Lord Lyon:
Surprisingly, it seems that some found it necessary to name enact a name change in order to apply for arms from the Lord Lyon in Scotland.  People who do not have a paternal line to  meet the requirements, paid to have the name Carruthers added to their Mitchell name.
See: HTTP://clancarrutherssociety.org/2019/10/05/clan-carruthers-mitchell-carruthers-holmains/
“We have the cadet line of Dormont, who matriculated off the Holmains line in 1913, and again, through the current recipient in 1993. In both cases they were granted with chevronelles and a border to indicate a cadet or junior branch of Holmains. During the initial stages of our research for a Chief, we assumed this line of the family was the senior, however this was to be proved incorrect as our findings were to show”.
• The apparent questionable rationale:.
▪ Therefore, moving on from Dormont, our research led us back to the House of Holmains and to the Sketchy and illegal Mitchell-Carruthers who are directly from that line. What is interesting about the Mitchell-Carruthers, is that when registering their arms they did not take the full arms of Holmains, which could have been thought was their right, but chose to incorporate them Holmains, albeit in the
senior position, on their quartered arms. Those arms show Holmains without difference in the first and fourth quarter. This indicates two things; Carruthers shows seniority over the Mitchells in their arms e.g. the dominant family, and also that they are of direct lineage from the Chiefly line of Holmains and not a cadet line e.g. ‘of’ the House of Holmains.”

• “Major Carruthers Wade died without issue in 1873 and the line of succession passed to his cousin, the Reverend

William Mitchell. He to changed his name by adding Carruthers to become the Reverend William Mitchell- Carruthers. Subsequently he too matriculated but with the Carruthers coat in the first and fourth and a newly devised Mitchell quartering in second and third. Reverend Mitchell-Carruthers also missed the mark as far as the chiefship would be regarded today”.

In summary, the questioned post by Clan Carruthers Society of Scotland CCSI, ( THE TRUTH IS ALWAYS OUT THERE) is ridiculously inaccurate and designed to mislead those who are interested in researching this ancient and honorable family. We would truly be remiss in not presenting the truth in an accurate and informative manner.

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CLAN CARRUTHERS INT SOCIETY CCIS  HISTORIAN AND GENEOLOGIST

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CLAN CARRUTHERS CCIS – THE SCOTTISH CHIEF -CEANN FEADHNA-THE HEART OF THE CLAN

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THE SCOTTISH CHIEF -CEANN FEADHA

THE HEART OF THE CLAN91jhWBLfsyL._SY500_

It is the fundamental urge of all living creatures to re-produce, to seek protection in the safety of numbers and to seek order through some form of social harmony. As human beings differ little from this, all over the world from the beginning of recorded time societies have existed, which have bound it’s population together in such a way. Whereas many Empires have been formed, flourished and died out at the hand or in the name of imperialism and dictatorship one system has remained. It is as strong today as it ever was, binding together millions across the globe, not with fanatical religious dogma but with the spirit and belonging of an extended family. One that is both socialist in principle and patriarchal in structure – the Scottish clan system.

The Clan societies operate much as they always have, as guardians of the traditions and welfare of their people. No other society springing from such a prehistoric source can be said to hold this modern age together with such a sense of compassion, such pride and unfathomable brotherhood with the chief holding the responsibility of representing and leading his respective clan.

Historically the principal function of the chief was to lead his clan in battle on land and sea. The chief and the chieftain were at one time in the Scottish Highlands influential political characters, who wielded a large and often arbitrary authority. The chiefs many attributes were often proved on the battlefield thus becoming the most honored but humble position in the clan. They respond to the needs of the clan as family by example and loyalty, sometimes fighting to the death for their beliefs, as was the fate of William Wallace who suffered a horrendous public execution by the English;

“And with the extinction of that breath, Kirkpatrick,” cried Wallace, “let your fell revenge perish also. For your own honor, commit no indignities on the body you have slain.”

Unwilling to compromise, William Wallace refused to submit to English rule, and Edward’s men pursued him until August 5, 1305, when they captured and arrested him near Glasgow. He was taken to London and condemned as a traitor to the king and was hanged, disemboweled, beheaded and quartered as an example .

History and Structure of the Clan, its Chiefs and Chieftains

The word clan actually derives from the Gaelic form ‘Clann’, meaning ‘children’ or ‘stock’. However it’s meaning in Scots can be a tribe or race or can represent a family unit.
It is quite possible however that the origins of the clan system outdate even the name itself.

The heart of the structure of the Clan was a contradiction. Two distinct concepts of Clan heritage existed together and functioned as one: Firstly there was the ‘Duthcas’, this was the fundamental right of a Clan member to settle in Clan territory and find protection there. Alongside this was the heritage of the individual Chief. This was called ‘Dighreachd’ and placed the Chief as the head of the Clan and as overall owner of its lands.
The Chief’s succession in the Celtic tradition was decided and governed by a system known as ‘Tanistry’; this was the ancient law of succession whereby an heir was chosen from a group of individuals with hereditary claims. This group would typically consist of males whose great grandfathers had, themselves been Chiefs. It was the existing Chief’s task to choose an heir or ‘Tanist’ from this group who was regarded as the person most suited to succession.

This system ensured that a strong leader was always chosen. Indeed, throughout the lifetime of the Chief the Tanist would be second in command, taking full responsibility for the Clan during the Chiefs absence.

Beneath the Chief were the Chieftains, from which the Tanist had been selected; these were the heads of the individual houses from which the Clan was formed. The eldest of these was called the ‘Toiseach’ and in most cases he became the Tanist. The Captain of the Clan was selected from any of the above. The ‘Daoin-Uaisle’ were the gentlemen of the clan, beneath them existing the main body of the clan itself.

In the Highlands which had been the homeland of the Picts there were 7 main tribal districts or provinces: Caith (Caithness & Sutherland), Fidach (Ross & Moray), Fodhla (Atholl), Fortrenn (W. Perthshire), Ce, (Mar & Buchan), Ciric or Ciricinn (Mearns) and Fibh (Fife)

A tribal unit was called a ‘Tuath’, several of these together was called a ‘Mortuadh’ or ‘great tribe’ and two or more of these made up the ‘Coicidh’ or province. Where several of these provinces joined each donated some land and this became a central district in which was located the capital. Where the four Perthshire provinces joined lies the palace of Scone.

Each province had a King or ‘Ri’ and from these the Sovereign or ‘Ard Ri’ was selected, however as the Scots from the Kingdom of Dalriada emigrated into the Highlands the title of ‘Ri’ became less common and was abandoned around the 12th century.

The difference between the Scottish and Pictish Clan systems were clear. At the heart of the Pictish system was a Celtic patriarchy. The land belonged to the tribe and they were responsible for its well being, the chief acting as the father of the Clan. Influences from south of the border had made the Scottish Clan system more feudal with the Chief or King being the sole owner. These two systems fused together and became the Clan system we know now.

Both ideas co-existed in a peculiar way: The relationship between the King and the Clan Chiefs was feudal, whereas the Chiefs themselves practiced a more traditional Clan system. In times of war (which was frequent), The Clan took on the form of a military regiment. Each Clan had its distinctive badge and war cry and its own pipe tunes to rally to. No Clan would enter into a war until its people were consulted. Only after full consent was given was the Clan put on a wartime footing.

The Law of the Clan

The laws and traditions of the Clan were its most sacred possession – next to its people. As the chief was inducted into his position he stood on a ceremonial stone with a sword in one hand and a white wand in the other he swore an oath to uphold these. He was the overall arbiter of Clan disputes and dispensed the law, as he dispensed the tenancy of land, Fairly and each according to his rights and needs. The Tanist as his second held the Clan lands in trust for posterity, swearing also to uphold tradition.
The dispensation of the law was assisted by the ‘Brieve’ a form of judge who’s position was hereditary and who’s salary came directly from imposed fines. A council of between 12 and 14 men who met on ‘moothills’ or mounds, coming together in a circle, helped him in the undertaking.

Payments to the Chief were regular and fair. ‘Calpich’ was a one time payment made to the Chief on the death of the head of a family. This was usually the families most prized possession, though rarely so prized as to force hardship on the family. ‘Cain’ was the presentation of the first fruits of the land to the Chief, land, which had most likely been given, or dispensed by that same Chief. The practice of ‘Manrent’ was a system of payment coming from the Septs which was offered in exchange for their continued protection. Arbitration was the most common way to settle any disputes – even between Clans. Only as a last resort and with the full support of the Clan was war considered. Nevertheless the frequency of disputes has left many a Clan with a bloody and violent history.

The New World

'The Last of the Clan' by Thomas Faed

The Highland Clearances in the 18th and 19th Century seemed to be the final blow in the destruction of the Clan system. However, what became clear as the Highlanders were forced from their native land was that a system so rooted in the traditions of kinship and the family unit would never be wiped out so easily. If anything the Highland Clearances brought a regeneration to the clan system.
As the settlers spread throughout the ‘New World’ the clan became the cement that bonded them together, The formation of the Highland and Islands Immigration Society in 1846 helped open up areas in Australia and New Zealand. The great spread of ‘Jock Tampson’s Bairns’ had begun. The very which had threatened to destroy the clan system turned it into a World-wide phenomena.

Revival: The Clan in Scotland

The 19th Century also saw a romantic revival in Scotland. Publications of Gaelic poetry became popular and the state visit of George IV was an event totally stage managed by Sir Walter Scott. Clan gatherings and parades were organised for the visit with every clan in its own tartan. An almost fanatical resurgence in interest in all things Scottish left Weavers and Kiltmakers exhausted. Hundreds of new clan tartans suddenly appeared and were distributed to the Clans on an arbitrary basis.

The Lord Lyon, an appointed officer of state and member of the Royal Household holds authority in all matters heraldic, Genealogical and armoric but only in Scotland. Peace between the clans is assured by the Standing Council of Scottish Chief.

The Clans Outside of Scotland

It cannot be said too often or stressed too strongly that there is no international law that controls the use of heraldry as there is, for example , for copyrights of trademarks. Each sovereign state has its own rules, customs and laws which extend only as far as the boundaries of its jurisdiction. So for any Carruthers or other people of Scottish descent it is futile to apply to the Lord Lyon for granting of arms.

In the United States we have our very large and enthusiastic Clan Carruthers with a strong heraldic tradition which goes back to the days of Independence, so much so that the military has its own Institute of Heraldry that regulates badges, flags and insignia within the U.S. Armed forces. For civilians there is no regulatory authority but several organizations which exist to promote heraldry and the importance of clan heritage, with each having its own chief and chieftains. The U.S. Heraldic Registry contains hundreds of arms that have been registered by that organization and for the most part have been designed and assumed by individuals across the US who are citizens and as long as the individual does not infringe on someone else’s designs. The arms and chieftainship are regarded as an honor and contribution to the community and an upstanding ability to lead is expected.

In Canada: Derived mainly from heraldic traditions in France and the United Kingdom, Canadian heraldry also incorporates distinctly Canadian symbols, especially native flora and fauna, references to the First Nations and other aboriginal peoples of Canada, and uniquely Canadian elements such as the Canadian pale, derived from the Canadian flag. A unique system of cadency is used for daughters inheriting arms, and a special symbol for United Empire Loyalists.

In 1988, governance of both personal and corporate heraldry in Canada was patriated from the heraldic authorities in England and Scotland, with the formation of the Canadian Heraldic Authority, which now has exclusive jurisdiction over granting awards of arms in Canada.

Coats of arms are used throughout Canada by all levels of government, in many cases including royal insignia as a mark of authority, as in the recently granted arms of the House of Commons and the Senate, and of Parliament as a combined body.

Use of armorial bearings is not limited to governmental bodies. All citizens of Canada have the right to petition for an award of arms, as do other entities including businesses and religious institutions. The granting of arms is regarded as an honor from the monarch, via the governor general, and thus are bestowed only on those whom the Chief Herald has deemed worthy of receiving a grant of arms.

In IrelandIreland – Applying for Arms / Matriculation of Arms

An application for a grant of arms should be made to the Chief Herald, on a prescribed form, setting out, in the case of a personal application, basic personal information and accompanied by supporting certificates or other appropriate documents. For a grant of arms to a corporate body or other entity, the application should include information about the legal status (if any) of the organization, its structure, its activities and business, the length of time during which it has operated and, if relevant, information about membership. Where appropriate, a certified copy of the resolution of the Council, Board, or other controlling body should be submitted.

If an application appears to be in order the matter is considered in detail by a herald of arms who will consult with the applicant about possible designs. A preliminary painting is then made for the approval of the applicant who will also be shown a draft of the Letters Patent. The final document is issued on vellum and includes a hand-painted exemplification of the arms. The grant of arms is recorded in the Register of Arms and is a matter of public record.

A grant of arms constitutes a license to use the arms, which allows the grantee, according to the traditional formula, to display the arms “on shield or banner or otherwise according to the Laws of Arms”. The copyright in a grant of arms resides with the Board of the National Library of Ireland. A grant of arms does not confer any rank or title or have any effect on the right of the person concerned to any property, real or personal. A grant of arms made to an individual extends to his or her descendants of the name, not to a family as such.

In New Zealand: The New Zealand Herald of Arms Extraordinary is the officer of arms responsible for the regulation of heraldry in New Zealand. Although affiliated with the College of Arms in London, the New Zealand Herald lives and works in New Zealand and is not a member of the College Chapter.

In Conclusion , the tenacity of the clan, its Chiefs and Chieftains and the memories of its people have survived the ages, with continued pride in the history and tenacity of the forefathers. A consistent thread running through the various clans objectives is the encouragement of the study of Scottish culture and in organizing bodies for sporting events and social gatherings. Many of the north American organisations have a long and illustrious history. The Illinois St Andrew Society is a good example: “Organized in 1854 to sustain the Scottish heritage in music, literature, history, cultural exchanges and dance, and to assist fellow Scottish immigrants in adjusting to the rugged pioneer mid west. The clan is alive and well, long may it continue !

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DR GAIL CARUTHERS BOHANNON GRAY    TEXAS USA

CLAN CARRUTHERS INT SOCIETY HISTORIAN AND GENEALOGIST

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